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  • Prudential — Investment, Insurance Intermediation and Banking Module (PIB) [VER33/02-19]

    • PIB 1 Application, Interpretation and Categorisation

      • PIB 1.1 Application

        • PIB 1.1.1

          (1) This module (PIB) applies to every Authorised Firm other than:
          (a) an Insurer;
          (b) a Representative Office; and
          (c) a Credit Rating Agency.
          (2) The Rules in PIB apply to an Authorised Firm in accordance with its Category determined under PIB section 1.3.
          (3) Where a chapter, part or section of PIB applies to a limited scope of Categories of Authorised Firm, the term "Authorised Firm" used in those provisions is to be read accordingly.
          (4) The Rules in PIB apply to the whole business of an Authorised Firm except in relation to Client Assets and Insurance Money that are held or controlled by an Authorised Firm which are not included in any prudential calculation.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Branches

          • PIB 1.1.2

            Unless otherwise directed by the DFSA, an Authorised Firm that is a Branch is required to comply with the Rules in chapters 2 to 11 as specifically provided in "Application Table A" which forms part of this Rule.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 1.1.2 Guidance

              1. The effect of PIB Rule 1.1.1(1) is that these Rules apply to all Authorised Firms, except those carrying on Insurance Business (that is, Insurers), that operate a Representative Office and those that are CRAs. Those Authorised Firms that are authorised to effect or carry out Contracts of Insurance should refer to the PIN module. Authorised Firms that are authorised to Operate a Representative Office should refer to the REP module.
              2. These Rules apply both to Domestic Firms and, to the extent specified in PIB Rule 1.1.2, to Authorised Firms conducting Financial Services through a Branch in the DIFC.
              3. The Rules in PIB reinforce the fitness and propriety requirements found in GEN chapter 5 - Management Systems and Principle 4 for Authorised Firms. The PIBmodule is set out in:
              a. an initial chapter establishing a categorisation of firms for the application of PIB;
              b. two general chapters setting overall requirements: General Requirements and Capital;
              c. six chapters setting specific requirements relating to the following particular risks or issues: Credit Risk, Market Risk, Operational Risk, Interest Rate Risk in the Non-Trading Book, Group Risk and Liquidity Risk;
              d. a chapter imposing processes for supervisory assessment, by which an Authorised Firm which is a Domestic Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 has obligations to establish and conduct an IRAP and an ICAAP, and to provide documented assessments to the DFSA; and
              e. a final chapter imposing public disclosure requirements.

              Domestic Firms

              4. To assist Authorised Firms that are Domestic Firms there is a table "Application Table B" which sets out in general the application of the provisions in this module to different Categories of Authorised Firms. This table is for Guidance purposes only. The Rules in this module apply to Authorised Firms in accordance with this Chapter and as specified in Rules elsewhere in this module.
              5. With regards to Authorised Firms carrying on Islamic Financial Business, there are additional matters that should be included in their report to the DFSA which are in the Islamic Finance Rules (IFR) module (see IFR section 5.4 of IFR module).

              APPLICATION TABLE A FOR AUTHORISED FIRMS THAT OPERATE AS A BRANCH IN THE DIFC

              PIB Chapters Category 1 Category 2 Category 3A Category 3B Category 3C Category 4 Category 5
              PIB Chapter 1: Application, Interpretation and Categorisation Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter
              PIB Chapter 2: General Requirements Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter
              PIB Chapter 3: Capital Only PIB Rule 3.2.4 Only PIB Rule 3.2.4 Only PIB Rule 3.2.4 Only PIB Rule 3.2.4 Only PIB Rule 3.2.4 Only PIB Rule 3.2.4 Only PIB Rule 3.2.4
              PIB Chapter 4: Credit Risk Only sections PIB 4.1 to PIB 4.4 and Rules PIB 4.5.1 to PIB 4.5.7 and PIB 4.5.9 Only sections PIB 4.1 to PIB 4.4 and Rules PIB 4.5.1 to PIB 4.5.7 and PIB 4.5.9 Only sections PIB 4.1 to PIB 4.4 and Rules PIB 4.5.1 to PIB 4.5.7 and PIB 4.5.9       Only sections PIB 4.1 to PIB 4.4 and Rules PIB 4.5.1 to PIB 4.5.7 and PIB 4.5.9
              PIB Chapter 5: Market Risk Only sections PIB 5.1 and PIB 5.2 Only sections PIB 5.1 and PIB 5.2 Only sections PIB 5.1 and PIB 5.2       Only sections PIB 5.1 and PIB 5.2
              PIB Chapter 6: Operational Risk Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.11 and PIB 6.12 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.11 and PIB 6.12 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.11 and PIB 6.12 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.10 and PIB 6.11 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.10 and PIB 6.11 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.10 and PIB 6.11 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.11 and PIB 6.12
              PIB Chapter 7: Interest Rate Risk In the Non-Trading Book Whole Chapter Whole Chapter          
              PIB Chapter 8: Group Risk Only sections PIB 8.1, PIB 8.2 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1, PIB 8.2 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1, PIB 8.2 and PIB 8.5
              PIB Chapter 9: Liquidity Risk Whole Chapter, except PIB Rules 9.2.2(3), 9.3.12 and 9.3.13 Only PIB Rule 9.2.2(3)         Whole Chapter, except PIB Rules 9.2.2(3), 9.3.12 and 9.3.13
              PIB Chapter 10: Supervisory Review and Evaluation Processes              
              PIB Chapter 11: Disclosure Requirements              

              APPLICATION TABLE B FOR AUTHORISED FIRMS THAT OPERATE AS A DOMESTIC FIRM

              PIB Chapters Category 1 Category 2 Category 3A Category 3B Category 3C Category 4 Category 5
              PIB Chapter 1: Application, Interpretation and Categorisation Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter
              PIB Chapter 2: General Requirements Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter
              PIB Chapter 3: Capital Whole Chapter, except Rules PIB 3.2.4 and PIB 3.2.6, and sections PIB 3.4, PIB 3.5 and PIB 3.7 Whole Chapter, except Rules PIB 3.2.4 and PIB 3.2.6, and sections PIB 3.3 and PIB 3.5 Whole Chapter, except Rules PIB 3.2.4 and PIB 3.2.6, except sections PIB 3.3, PIB 3.5, PIB 3.9, PIB 3.9A, PIB 3.9B, 3.9C and PIB 3.18 Whole Chapter, except Rules PIB 3.2.4 and PIB 3.2.7, and sections PIB 3.3, PIB 3.4, PIB 3.8, PIB 3.9, PIB 3.9A, PIB 3.9B, 3.9C and PIB 3.18 Whole Chapter, except Rules PIB 3.2.4 and PIB 3.2.7, and sections PIB 3.3, PIB 3.4, PIB 3.8, PIB 3.9, PIB 3.9A, PIB 3.9B, 3.9C and PIB 3.18 Whole Chapter, except Rules PIB 3.2.4 and PIB 3.2.7, and sections PIB 3.3, PIB 3.4, PIB 3.8, PIB 3.9, PIB 3.9A, PIB 3.9B, 3.9C and PIB 3.18 Whole Chapter, except Rules PIB 3.2.4 and PIB 3.2.6, and sections PIB 3.4, PIB 3.5 and PIB 3.7
              PIB Chapter 4: Credit Risk Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter       Whole Chapter
              PIB Chapter 5: Market Risk Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Only sections PIB 5.1, PIB 5.2 and PIB 5.6       Whole Chapter, except PIB section 5.4
              PIB Chapter 6: Operational Risk Whole Chapter, except PIB section 6.12 Whole Chapter, except PIB section 6.12 Whole Chapter, except PIB section 6.12 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.10 and PIB 6.11 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.10 and PIB 6.11 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 6.10 and PIB 6.11 Whole Chapter, except PIB section 6.12
              PIB Chapter 7: Interest Rate Risk In the Non-Trading Book Whole Chapter Whole Chapter          
              PIB Chapter 8: Group Risk Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Only sections PIB 8.1 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1 and PIB 8.5 Only sections PIB 8.1 and PIB 8.5 Whole Chapter
              PIB Chapter 9: Liquidity Risk Whole Chapter, except PIB Rule 9.2.2(3) Only PIB Rule 9.2.2 (3).         Whole Chapter, except PIB Rule 9.2.2(3)
              PIB Chapter 10: Supervisory Review and Evaluation Processes Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 10.4 and PIB 10.6 Whole Chapter, except sections PIB 10.4 and PIB 10.6   Whole Chapter
              PIB Chapter 11: Disclosure Requirements Whole Chapter Whole Chapter         Whole Chapter
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 1.2 Glossary for PIB

        • PIB 1.2 Guidance

          Set out under PIB Rule 1.2.1 are a number of mainly technical definitions used solely in PIB. Such definitions do not also appear in GLO unless they are used elsewhere in the Rulebook. GLO also contains definitions of abbreviations, terms and phrases used in PIB and those are also included in PIB 1.2.1 for convenience purposes where such definitions are embedded in PIB specific definitions. Commonly used definitions such as "Authorised Firms", "Domestic Firms", and "Financial Services" appear only in GLO.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 1.2.1

          The following terms and abbreviations bear the following meanings for the purpose of this module:

          Alternative Standardised Approach The manner in which the Operation Risk Capital Requirement is calculated in accordance with sections PIB 6.11 and PIB A6.3.
          Annual Audited Expenditure The expenditure calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 3.7.3.
          Asset-Backed Commercial Paper (ABCP) Programme A programme that predominately issues commercial paper with an Original Maturity of one year or less that is backed by assets or other Exposures held in a bankruptcy-remote SPE.
          AT1 Additional tier 1
          AT1 Capital Has the meaning given in PIB section 3.14.
          Available Stable Funding (ASF) The amount, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule A9.4.1, representing the relative stability of an Authorised Firm's available funding sources.
          ASF Category The applicable category, listed in the table to PIB Rule A9.4.1, to which the carrying value of a liability or capital instrument of an Authorised Firm is assigned.
          ASF Factor The applicable factor, listed in the table to PIB Rule A9.4.1, used to multiply the carrying value of a liability or capital instrument of an Authorised Firm.
          Base Capital Requirement Has the meaning given in PIB section 3.6.
          Basel Committee The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.
          Basic Indicator Approach The manner in which the Operational Risk Capital Requirement is calculated in accordance with sections PIB 6.11 and PIB A6.1.
          Capital Buffer In relation to an Authorised Firm, means the sum of the following (to the extent applicable to the firm):
          (a) Capital Conservation Buffer;
          (b) Countercyclical Capital Buffer; and
          (c) HLA Capital Buffer.
          Capital Buffer Requirement Means a requirement to maintain any one or more of the following:
          (a) Capital Conservation Buffer;
          (b) Countercyclical Capital Buffer; or
          (c) an HLA Capital Buffer.
          Capital Conservation Buffer The Capital Buffer that an Authorised Firm must maintain under section 3.9.
          Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement The requirement to maintain a Capital Conservation Buffer under section 3.9.
          Capital Requirement The amount of capital an Authorised Firm must hold, calculated in accordance with sections PIB 3.3, PIB 3.4, PIB 3.5, PIB 3.9, PIB 3.9A or PIB 3.9B as applicable.
          Capital Resources The total Capital Resources of an Authorised Firm calculated in accordance with PIB section 3.11.
          Category A prudential grouping of Authorised Firms which determines the application of the Rules in this Module.
          CCF Credit conversion factor
          CCP Central Counterparty
          CEA Credit equivalent amount
          CET1 Common equity tier 1
          CET1 Capital Has the meaning given in PIB section 3.13.
          Clean-Up Call An option that permits the SE Exposures (e.g. asset-backed Securities) to be called before all of the underlying Exposures or SE Exposures have been repaid. In the case of Traditional Securitisations, this is generally accomplished by repurchasing the remaining SE Exposures once the pool balance or outstanding Securities have fallen below some specified level. In the case of a synthetic Exposure, the Clean-Up Call may take the form of a clause that extinguishes the credit protection.
          Close Links A Person (Person A) has Close Links with a Person (Person B) if:
          (a) Person B:
          (i) is a Holding Company of Person A;
          (ii) is a Subsidiary of Person A;
          (iii) is a Holding Company of the Subsidiary of Person A;
          (iv) is a Subsidiary of a Holding Company of Person A; or
          (v) owns and controls 20% or more of the voting rights or shares of Person A; or
          (b) Person A owns and controls 20% or more of the voting rights or shares of Person B.
          Closely Related Has the meaning given in PIB Rule A4.11.5.
          Collateral Any form of asset, guarantee, or indemnity which is held or controlled by an Authorised Firm and is subject to a security interest or arrangement in favour of that firm.
          Collective Investment Fund Risk Capital Requirement A component of Market Risk Capital Requirement calculated in accordance with PIB section 5.9.
          Commodities Risk Capital Requirement A component of the Market Risk Capital Requirement to cover the risk of holding or taking positions in commodities, including precious metals, but excluding gold, calculated in accordance with PIB section 5.7.
          Concentration Risk The risk faced by an Authorised Firm arising out of its Large Exposures.
          Connected In relation to a Person (A), a Person which has or has at any relevant time had the following relationship to A:
          (a) a member of A's Group;
          (b) a Controller of A;
          (c) a member of a partnership of which A is a member;
          (d) an employee or former employee of A;
          (e) if A is a company:
          (i) an officer or manager of A or of a parent of A;
          (ii) an agent of A or of a parent of A;
          (f) if A is a partnership is or has been a member, manager or agent of A; or
          (g) if A is an unincorporated association of persons which is not a partnership, is or has been an officer, manager or agent of A.
          Connected Counterparties Has the meaning given in PIB Rule A4.11.7.
          Contingency Funding Plan (CFP) The plan referred to in PIB Rule 9.2A.6.
          Controlled Early Amortisation Early Amortisation that meets the conditions in PIB Rule 4.14.58.
          Countercyclical Capital Buffer (CCyB) The countercyclical capital buffer that an Authorised Firm must maintain under section 3.9A.
          CCyB Authority
          (1) For the State, means the Central Bank; and
          (2) For any other jurisdiction, means the authority in that jurisdiction responsible for setting CCyB Rates.
          CCyB Rate A rate expressed as a percentage of Risk Weighted Assets that applies under PIB Rules 3.9A.7 to 3.9A.9.
          CCyB Requirement The requirement to maintain a Countercyclical Capital Buffer under PIB section 3.9A.
          Counterparty Means any person with or for whom an Authorised Firm carries on, or intends to carry on, any regulated business or associated business. In this context, Counterparty includes an individual, unincorporated body, company, government, local authority or other public body.
          Counterparty Risk The risk that an Authorised Firm's Counterparty does not perform its obligations under the terms of a contract.
          CR Exposure The Exposure value or amount for a Credit Risk Exposure.
          Credit Derivative Any contract which transfers the Credit Risk of a reference obligation or set of reference obligations from the protection buyer to the protection seller, such that the protection seller has an Exposure to the reference obligation(s).
          Credit Enhancement A contractual arrangement in which the Authorised Firm retains or assumes an SE Exposure and, in substance, provides some degree of added protection to other parties to the transaction.
          Credit Quality Grade A credit quality step in a credit quality assessment scale. A credit quality assessment scale is a scale onto the credit assessments of an ECAI or an expert credit agency are mapped.
          Credit Risk In relation to an Authorised Firm, the risk of loss if another party fails to perform on its financial obligation to the Authorised Firm.
          Credit Risk Capital Requirement (CRCOM) The requirement calculated in accordance with PIB section 4.6.
          Credit-Enhancing Interest-Only Strip An on-balance sheet asset that:
          (i) represents a valuation of cash flows related to future margin income; and
          (ii) is subordinated.
          CRW Credit risk weight for an Exposure.
          CV Contracted value for delivery.
          Delta The measure of an Option's sensitivity to a change in value of the underlying investment, asset or property.
          Displaced Commercial Risk Capital Requirement The requirement calculated in accordance with IFR chapter 5.
          Domestic Systemically Important Bank (D-SIB) An Authorised Firm designated by the DFSA under PIB section 1.4 as a domestic systemically important bank.
          Duration Method A measure of General Market Risk calculated in accordance with PIB Rule A5.2.19.
          E An Exposure value or amount
          E* An Exposure value or amount adjusted in the manner provided in the relevant Rule
          EAE The Exposure value or amount for an Early Amortisation Exposure
          Early Amortisation A mechanism that, once triggered, allows investors to be paid out prior to the originally stated maturity of the securities issued. For risk-based capital purposes, an Early Amortisation provision will be considered either controlled or non-controlled.
          ECAI A CRA or an external credit rating agency approved by the DFSA for the purpose of this Module.
          Equity Risk Capital Requirement A component of Market Risk Capital Requirement and calculated in accordance with PIB section 5.5.
          Evergreening Evergreening refers to the practice by some banks to roll over or renew their non-performing loans or potentially nonperforming loans, so that they can avoid recognising them as non-performing loans in their accounts and consequently avoid provisioning for them.
          Excess Spread Gross finance charge collections and other income received by the trust or SPE minus certificate interest, servicing fees, charge-offs, and other senior trust or SPE expenses.
          Expenditure Based Capital Minimum A Capital Requirement calculated in accordance with PIB section 3.7.
          Exposure The maximum loss that an Authorised Firm (and where applicable its PSIA holders) might suffer if:
          (a) a Counterparty or a group of Connected Counterparties fail to meet their obligations; or
          (b) it realises assets or off-balance sheet positions.
          An Exposure also includes any asset or off-balance sheet item, which could result in a potential loss to the Authorised Firm due to Market Risk or Operational Risk or any other risk factor.
          FCCA Financial Collateral Comprehensive Approach as described in PIB Rule 4.9.5.
          FCSA Financial Collateral Simplified Approach as described in PIB Rule 4.9.5.
          Financial Group A group of entities which includes an Authorised Firm and:
          (a) any Parent incorporated in the DIFC;
          (b) any Financial Institution subsidiaries (whether direct or indirect) of the Parent or Parents in (a) or of the Authorised Firm;
          (c) any Financial Institution in which the Parent or Parents in (a), the Financial Institution subsidiaries in (b) or the Authorised Firm (whether direct or indirect) hold 20% or more of the voting rights or capital; and
          (d) any entity which the DFSA directs the Authorised Firm to include in accordance with PIB Rule 8.1.2 or PIN Rule 8.1.2.
          Financial Group Capital Requirement The Capital Requirement of a Financial Group calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 8.3.3 or PIN Rule 8.3.3.
          Financial Group Capital Resources The Capital Resources of a Financial Group calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 8.3.4 or PIN 8.3.4.
          First Loss Position Represents the first level of support provided to the special purpose entity or vehicle that should bear all, or a significant part of, the risk associated with the items held by the special purpose entity or vehicle.
          Foreign Exchange Risk Capital Requirement A component of the Market Risk Capital Requirement and as calculated in accordance with PIB section 5.6.
          Gamma The measure of the rate of change of Delta.
          General Market Risk
          (1) For the purposes of the Interest Rate Risk Capital Requirement, means the risk that losses may arise from price changes in Securities caused by parallel or non-parallel shifts in the yield curve or from price movements in the equity market for a given country;
          (2) For the purposes of the Equity Risk Capital Requirement, means the risk that losses may arise from a price movement in the equity market for a given country; or
          (3) For the purposes of internal models, means both of the above risks.
          Global Systemically Important Bank (G-SIB) An Authorised Firm designated by the DFSA under PIB section 1.4 as a global systemically important bank.
          Group Means a group of entities which includes an entity (the 'first entity') and:
          (a) any Parent of the first entity; and
          (b) any subsidiaries (direct or indirect) of the Parent or Parents in (a) or the first entity.
          Group Risk The risk of loss to the Authorised Firm as a result of its membership of, or linkages within a Group.
          High Quality Liquid Assets (HQLA) Liquid assets that meet the conditions in Rules PIB Rule A9.2.2 to PIB Rule A9.2.9 of App 9.
          HLA Capital Buffer A higher loss absorbency capital buffer that a SIB must maintain under PIB section 3.9B.
          HLA Capital Buffer Requirement The requirement to maintain a higher loss absorbency capital buffer under PIB section 3.9B.
          HLA Ratio In relation to a SIB, means the ratio determined by the DFSA under PIB Rule 3.9B.6 for that SIB.
          ICR (Individual Capital Requirement) Individual capital requirement
          Implicit Support Arises when an Authorised Firm provides support to a securitisation in excess of its predetermined contractual obligation.
          Individual Liquidity Requirement An individual liquidity requirement imposed by the DFSA under PIB Rule 9.3.6.
          Interest Rate Risk Capital Requirement A component of Market Risk Capital Requirement and calculated in accordance with PIB section 5.4.
          Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP) The internal capital adequacy assessment process prescribed in PIB chapter 10.
          Internal Risk Assessment Process (IRAP) The internal risk assessment process prescribed in PIB section 10.3.
          Investment Grade A credit rating which is a Credit Quality Grade of 1, 2 or 3.
          Large Exposure An Exposure, whether in an Authorised Firm's Non-Trading Book or Trading Book, or both, to a Counterparty or group of Closely Related Counterparties or a group of Counterparties Connected to the Authorised Firm which in aggregate equals or exceeds 10% of the Authorised Firm's Capital Resources.
          LCR Requirement The LCR required to be maintained by an Authorised Firm under PIB Rule 9.3.4 or, if applicable, under PIB Rule 9.3.6.
          Leverage Ratio The amount expressed as a percentage that is calculated in accordance with the Rules in section PIB 3.18.
          Leverage Ratio Exposure Measure The value of an Authorised Firm's exposures calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 3.18.3 to detemine its Leverage Ratio.
          Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) The amount expressed as a percentage that is calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 9.3.5 and section PIB A9.2 of App 9.
          Liquidity Risk The risk of loss to an Authorised Firm as a result of inability to meet its obligations as they fall due.
          Market Risk The risk of loss that arises from fluctuations in the values of, or income from, assets or in interest or exchange rates.
          Market Risk Capital Requirement The requirement calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 5.3.1.
          Matched Principal Has the meaning described in PIB Rule 1.3.3(2).
          Maturity Ladder A table that ordinally ranks the maturity time bands and assets and liabilities within them.
          Maturity Method This is an advanced approach that an Authorised Firm may use to measure the risk of holding or taking positions in debt Securities and other interest rate-related instruments, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule A5.2.17.
          MDB Multilateral development bank
          Modified Duration The time period calculation for the purposes of the Duration Method in accordance with PIB Rule A5.2.21.
          MV Market value
          Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) The amount, expressed as a percentage, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 9.3.12, or, if applicable, PIB Rule 9.3.6.
          Netting A process by which the claims and obligations between two Counterparties are offset against each other to leave a single net sum.
          Non-Financial Private Sector Credit Exposure A Credit Risk Exposure to a party other than:
          (a) a sovereign;
          (b) a regional, provincial or municipal government;
          (c) a public sector entity;
          (d) a multilateral development bank; or
          (e) a bank.
          Non-Trading Book Describes positions, Exposures and on-and off-balance sheet items, which are not in the Trading Book.
          NP Nominal principal amount.
          NSFR Requirement The requirement for an Authorised Firm to maintain a minimum NSFR under PIB Rule 9.3.12(1) or, if applicable, PIB Rule 9.3.6.
          OSB< Off-balance sheet.
          OBS Exposure An Exposure of an Authorised Firm that is off-balance sheet..
          OBS-RSF Category A category, listed in Table 2 to PIB Rule A9.4.2, to which carrying value of an OBS Exposure (or potential liquidity Exposure) is assigned..
          OBS-RSF Factor The factor, listed in Table 2 to PIB Rule A9.4.2, used to multiply the carrying value of an OBS Exposure (or a potential liquidity Exposure)..
          Operational Risk The risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events, including legal risk.
          Operational Risk Capital Requirement The requirement calculated in accordance with PIB section 6.11.
          Option Risk Capital Requirement A component of the Market Risk Capital Requirement and calculated in accordance with PIB section 5.8.
          Original Maturity
          (1) The time period between the date an offer is made and the date it expires or lapses.
          (2) In relation to Debentures, the interval between its issue date and the date on which it becomes due and payable.
          Originator
          (a) an entity which, either itself or through related entities, directly or indirectly, creates the Exposure being securitised; or
          (b) any entity which purchases or advises or causes an SPE to purchase the Exposures of a third party, which are then used in a securitisation (for avoidance of doubt, selling credit protection such that the entity or the SPE has a long position in the Credit Risk of the obligor is equivalent to purchasing Exposures);
          Where an entity lends to an SPE with a view to enabling that SPE to make loans which are then used in a securitisation, the entity will generally be deemed to be acting as an Originator.
          OTC Over the counter
          Potential Future Credit Exposure (PFCE) An amount calculated by multiplying the nominal principal amount of an OTC derivative contract by a specified percentage dependent on the nature and residual maturity of the contract.
          PSE Public sector enterprise
          PSIA Profit sharing investment account.
          Qualifying Holding Any holding in the capital of a non-financial Undertaking of which the Authorised Firm is a controller.
          Related Person Has the meaning given in PIB Rule 4.4.6.
          Relevant Entity Means any of the following:
          (a) another Authorised Firm;
          (b) a Regulated Financial Institution;
          (c) any unregulated Financial Institution; or
          (d) any financial holding company.
          Required Stable Funding (RSF) The amount, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule A9.4.2, representing the stable funding required by an Authorised Firm.
          RSF Category A category, listed in Table 1 to PIB Rule A9.4.2, to which the carrying value of an Authorised Firm's asset is assigned.
          RSF Factor The applicable factor, listed in Table 1 to PIB Rule A9.4.2, used to multiply the carrying value of an asset of an Authorised Firm.
          Re-securitisation Has the meaning given in PIB section 4.14.
          Restricted PSIA (PSIAr) A PSIA in respect of the investment account holder imposes certain restrictions as to where, how and for what purpose his funds are to be invested.
          Revolving Securitisation A Traditional or Synthetic Securitisation in which the specified items consist of revolving assets such as loan facilities or credit card balances which permit borrowers to vary the drawn amount within an agreed limit, or the scheme itself is revolving.
          Rho The measure of an Option's sensitivity to a change in interest rates.
          Risk Capital Requirement Has the meaning given in PIB Rule 3.8.1A.
          Risk Weighted Assets (RWA) The risk weighted assets of an Authorised Firm calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 3.8.2.
          SE Exposure The Exposure value or amount for a securitisation Exposure.
          Securities Underwriting Capital Requirement A component of the Market Risk Capital Requirement defined in PIB section 5.10.
          Servicer A Person that administers the securitised items.
          SFT Securities financing transactions, such as repo, reverse repo, security lending and borrowing, and margin lending transactions.
          Simplified Approach An alternative application of the provisions of PIB chapter 4 for an Authorised Firm in Category 2 and 3A, as described in sections PIB 4.7 and PIB A4.12.
          Special Purpose Entity (SPE) A corporation, trust, or other entity organised for a specific purpose, the activities of which are limited to those appropriate to accomplish the purpose of the SPE, and the structure of which is intended to isolate the SPE from the Credit Risk of an Originator or seller of Exposures. SPEs are commonly used as financing vehicles in which Exposures are sold to a trust or similar entity in exchange for cash or other assets funded by debt issued by the trust.
          Specific Risk The risk that losses on an Authorised Firm's net long or short position in an individual equity or Security may arise from a negative or positive price movement of that equity or Security relative to the relevant market generally.
          Sponsor An Authorised Firm that repackages third party assets directly into a securitisation scheme. Where an Authorised Firm repackages non-Investment Grade third party assets, it may fall within the definition of an Originator unless it originates or repackages no more than 10% of the scheme's total assets.
          Standardised Approach The manner in which the Operational Risk Capital Requirement is calculated in accordance with sections PIB 6.11 and PIB A6.2.
          Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP) The supervisory review and evaluation process prescribed in PIB chapter 10.
          Synthetic Securitisation Has the meaning given in PIB Rule 4.14.2(b).
          Systemically Important Bank (SIB) An Authorised Firm designated by the DFSA under PIB section 1.4 to be either or both of the following:
          (a) a D-SIB; or
          (b) a G-SIB.
          T Trade date, which is the date on which a transaction is entered into.
          T1 Tier 1
          T1 Capital Has the meaning given in PIB Rule 3.12.1.
          T2 Tier 2
          T2 Capital Has the meaning given in PIB Rule 3.15.1.
          Theta The ratio of the change in an Option price to the decrease in time to expiration. Theta can also be referred to as time decay.
          Total Net Cash Outflow Has the meaning given in PIB Rule A9.2.13
          Total Return Swap A contract under which two parties exchange their positive or negative returns on a notional amount of a reference asset for a specified period of time.
          Trading Book The positions and Exposures including, on and off-balance sheet items eligible for inclusion in the Trading Book, as described in PIB section 2.2.
          Traditional Securitisation Has the meaning given in PIB Rule 4.14.2(a).
          Unrestricted PSIA (PSIAu) A PSIA in respect of which the investment account holder authorises the Authorised Firm to invest the account holder's funds in a manner which the Authorised Firm deems appropriate without laying down any restrictions as to where, how and for what purpose the funds should be invested.
          Unsettled Transaction A transaction where delivery of an instrument is due to take place against the receipt of cash but remains outstanding.
          Vega The measure of the sensitivity of the value of the Option to a change in the volatility of the underlying asset.
          Walkaway Clause A provision which permits a non-defaulting party to make payments, or no payments at all, to the estate of the defaulter, even if the defaulter is a net creditor.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
          [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 1.3 Categories of Authorised Firms

        • PIB 1.3 Guidance

          1. Authorised Firms are divided into Categories to provide a clear framework for determining which specific Rules in PIB apply to each Authorised Firm. The Rules in this section enable an Authorised Firm to determine into which Category it falls.
          2. The table in PIB A1.1 of PIB App1 sets out the categorisation process diagrammatically. In that table, an emboldened box indicates the Financial Service that is determinative of the Category into which an Authorised Firm falls. An Authorised Firm may, if authorised under its Licence to do so, conduct any number of Financial Services specified under any lower Category than the one that applies to the Authorised Firm in accordance with this section (For this purpose Category 5 is considered to be equivalent to Category 1). For example, a Category 1 firm could conduct any of the Financial Services specified under Categories 2, 3A, 3B, 3C or 4 (if authorised to do so). However, a Category 4 firm may only conduct any of the Financial Services listed under Category 4 for which it is authorised.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Category 1

          • PIB 1.3.1

            An Authorised Firm is in Category 1 if:

            (a) its Licence authorises it to carry on one or more of the Financial Services of Accepting Deposits or Managing a PSIAu; and
            (b) it does not meet the criteria of Category 5.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 1.3.1 Guidance

              A Category 1 Authorised Firm may be authorised to conduct other Financial Services, but it is the authorisation for Accepting Deposits or Managing a PSIAu that is determinative of its belonging to Category 1.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Category 2

          • PIB 1.3.2

            An Authorised Firm is in Category 2 if:

            (a) its Licence authorises it to carry on one or more of the Financial Services of Providing Credit or Dealing in Investments as Principal; and
            (b) its dealing activities are not limited in scope as provided in PIB Rule 1.3.3(1)(a)(i); and
            (c) it does not meet the criteria of Categories 1 or 5.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 1.3.2 Guidance

              1. A Category 2 Authorised Firm may be authorised to conduct other Financial Services, but it is the authorisation for Dealing in Investments as Principal (not only as a Matched Principal) or authorisation for Providing Credit, and the absence of authorisation for the activities specified in PIB Rule 1.3.1, that are determinative of its belonging to Category 2.
              2. Where the dealing activities of a firm are limited to acting only as Matched Principal, the activities fall in the scope of Category 3A in accordance with PIB Rule 1.3.3(1). A definition of "Matched Principal" is in PIB Rule 1.3.3(2).
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Category 3A

          • PIB 1.3.3

            (1) An Authorised Firm is in Category 3A if:
            (a) its Licence authorises it to carry on one or more of the Financial Services of:
            (i) Dealing in Investments as Principal (where it does so only as a Matched Principal); or
            (ii) Dealing in Investments as Agent; and
            (b) it does not meet the criteria of Categories 1, 2 or 5.
            (2) For the purposes of PIB, an Authorised Firm Deals in Investments as a "Matched Principal" if:
            (a) it enters into transactions as a principal only for the purpose of fulfilling its Clients' orders;
            (b) it holds positions for its own account ("positions") only as a result of a failure to match Clients' orders;
            (c) the total market value of the positions it holds is no more than 15% of the Firm's Tier 1 Capital Resources; and
            (d) the positions are incidental in nature and are strictly limited to the time reasonably required to carry out a transaction of that nature.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 1.3.3 Guidance

              A Category 3A Authorised Firm may be authorised to conduct other Financial Services, but it is the authorisation for Dealing in Investments as Agent, or authorisation for Dealing in Investments as Principal where it does so as a Matched Principal, and the absence of authorisation for the activities specified in Rules PIB 1.3.1 and PIB 1.3.2 that are determinative of its belonging to Category 3A.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Category 3B

          • PIB 1.3.4

            An Authorised Firm is in Category 3B if:

            (a) its Licence authorises it to carry on one or more of the Financial Services of:
            (i) Providing Custody (where it does so for a Fund); or
            (ii) Acting as the Trustee of a Fund; and
            (b) it does not meet the criteria of Categories 1, 2, 3A or 5.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 1.3.4 Guidance

              A Category 3B Authorised Firm may be authorised to conduct other Financial Services, but it is the authorisation for Providing Custody for a Fund or Acting as Trustee of a Fund, and the absence of authorisation for the activities specified in Rules PIB 1.3.1, PIB 1.3.2 and PIB 1.3.3 that are determinative of its belonging to Category 3B.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Category 3C

          • PIB 1.3.5

            An Authorised Firm is in Category 3C if:

            (a) its Licence authorises it to carry on one or more of the Financial Services of:
            (i) Managing Assets;
            (ii) Managing a Collective Investment Fund;
            (iii) Providing Custody (where it does so other than for a Fund);
            (iv) Managing a PSIA (which is a PSIAr); or
            (v) Providing Trust Services (where it is acting as trustee in respect of at least one express trust); and
            (b) it does not meet the criteria of Categories 1, 2, 3A, 3B or 5.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 1.3.5 Guidance

              A Category 3C Authorised Firm may be authorised to conduct other Financial Services, but it is the authorisation for Managing Assets, Managing a Collective Investment Fund, Providing Custody other than for a Fund, Managing a PSIA which is a PSIAr, or Providing Trust Services (where it is acting as a trustee in respect of at least one express trust), and the absence of authorisation for the activities specified in Rules PIB 1.3.1, PIB 1.3.2, PIB 1.3.3 and PIB 1.3.4 that are determinative of its belonging to Category 3C.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Category 4

          • PIB 1.3.6

            An Authorised Firm is in Category 4 if:

            (a) its Licence authorises it to carry on one or more of the Financial Services of Arranging Deals in Investments, Advising on Financial Products, Arranging Custody, Insurance Intermediation, Insurance Management, Operating an Alternative Trading System, Providing Fund Administration, Providing Trust Services (where it is not acting as trustee in respect of an express trust), . . . Arranging Credit and Advising on Credit or Operating a Crowdfunding Platform; and
            (b) it does not meet the criteria of Categories 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C or 5.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM188/2016 (Made 7th December 2016). [VER26/02-17]
            [Amended] DSFA RM203/2017 (Made 14th June 2017). [VER28/08-17]

            • PIB 1.3.6 Guidance

              An Authorised Firm in Category 4 may not be authorised to conduct any other Financial Service beyond those listed in PIB Rule 1.3.6(a); if it were so authorised it would belong to another Category.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Category 5

          • PIB 1.3.7

            An Authorised Firm is in Category 5 if it:

            (a) is an Islamic Financial Institution; and
            (b) Manages a PSIAu.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 1.3.7 Guidance

              Authorised Firms in Categories 1 to 4 may also carry out Islamic Financial Business, but only those Authorised Firms in Categories 1 or 5 may Manage a PSIAu. They will not fall within Category 5 unless the whole of the business is conducted in accordance with Shari'a and they Manage a PSIAu.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 1.4 Systemically Important Banks (SIBs)

        • PIB 1.4 Guidance

          1. This section provides for the DFSA to be able to designate an Authorised Firm as a Systemically Important Bank (SIB). A SIB is a bank whose impact, if it were to fail, could cause significant disruption to the financial system and the broader economy. To address the additional risks that SIBs pose, SIBs are subject to specific regulatory and supervisory measures, including higher capital charges in the form of an additional buffer (an HLA Capital Buffer) and more intensive supervision.
          2. The DFSA will base its approach to identifying SIBs, and the measures that it applies to SIBs, on the framework issued by the Basel Committee.
          3. In accordance with the Basel Committee framework, this section provides for the DFSA to designate two types of SIBs: global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) and domestic systemically important banks (D-SIBs). The main difference between the two types of SIBs, is that G-SIBs are capable of having a significant impact on the effective working and stability of the global financial system, while the potential impact of D-SIBs is on the local or regional financial system. The differences in the requirements that apply to each are explained later in this section.
          4. In appropriate cases, the DFSA may designate an Authorised Firm as both a G-SIB and a D-SIB if its failure could have a significant impact on both the global and regional financial systems. If the DFSA designates a firm as both a G-SIB and a D-SIB, the HLA Capital Buffer that applies will be whichever is the higher of the amount calculated for it as a G-SIB and the amount calculated for it as a D-SIB (see PIB Rule 3.9B.3). If a firm is a G-SIB, it does not automatically mean that it will be a D-SIB. For example, a firm may be systemically important globally, but it may not conduct significant business locally or regionally.
          Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Global Systemically Important Banks (G-SIBs)

          • PIB 1.4.1

            The DFSA will designate an Authorised Firm as a G-SIB if:

            (a) it is a Domestic Firm in Category 1 or 5;
            (b) it is a member of a Group that is included on the list of global systemically important banks published by the Financial Stability Board; and
            (c) the DFSA is the overall consolidated supervisor of that Group.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 1.4.2

            The DFSA may designate an Authorised Firm as a G-SIB if:

            (a) the conditions in paragraphs (a) and (b) of Rule 1.4.1 are met in relation to the Authorised Firm; and
            (b) the DFSA is not the overall consolidated supervisor of the Group but it considers that it is appropriate to treat the Authorised Firm as a G-SIB.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 1.4.2 Guidance

              1. The Financial Stability Board (FSB), in consultation with the Basel Committee, identifies and periodically publishes a list of global systemically important banks.
              2. If the DFSA is the consolidated supervisor of a Group included on the FSB list of global systemically important banks, it will designate an Authorised Firm in the Group that is a bank as a G-SIB (see Rule 1.4.1).
              3. If an Authorised Firm that is a bank is part of a Group included on the FSB list, but the DFSA is not the consolidated supervisor of that Group, the DFSA may designate that Authorised Firm as a G-SIB if it considers it is appropriate to do so in all the circumstances (see Rule 1.4.2). If the DFSA proposes to designate an Authorised Firm as a G-SIB where it is not the consolidated supervisor of the relevant Group, it will normally consult first with the consolidated supervisor to ensure that the supervisors are taking a co-ordinated approach.
              4. A G-SIB, in addition to being subject to more intensive supervision, must maintain an extra capital buffer (the HLA Capital Buffer) under PIB section 3.9B. At the consolidated Group level, a G-SIB also has to publish quantitative indicators relating to its systemic importance (see PIB Rule 11.1.3 and App 11 Table 15) and carry out recovery and resolution planning.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Domestic Systemically Important Banks (D-SIBs)

          • PIB 1.4.3

            The DFSA may designate an Authorised Firm as a D-SIB if:

            (a) it is a Domestic Firm or Branch in Category 1, 2 or 5; and
            (b) the DFSA considers that the risks associated with the Authorised Firm are such that, if it were to fail, it could have a significant impact on the effective working and stability of the banking or financial system locally or regionally.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 1.4.3 Guidance

              1. The DFSA will, in assessing if it should designate an Authorised Firm as a D-SIB, take into account the factors suggested by the Basel Committee in its framework for domestic systemically important banks. Those factors include the size, interconnectedness, substitutability and complexity of the firm. The DFSA will publish the general assessment methodology it applies in assessing if it should designate a firm as a D-SIB.
              2. The DFSA may designate an Authorised Firm as a D-SIB whether it is a Domestic Firm or a Branch. However, the measures that apply to a D-SIB that is a Branch will be less extensive than those that apply to a D-SIB that is a Domestic Firm. For example, while both are subject to more intensive supervision, a D-SIB that is a Branch will not be subject to the HLA Capital Buffer Requirement. This is because most capital requirements in chapter 3 do not apply to a Branch as it is subject to capital requirements applied by its home state regulator.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Procedures for designating SIBs

          • PIB 1.4.4

            (1) The DFSA may amend or cancel a designation made under this section.
            (2) The DFSA must publish a copy of any designation made under this section or any amendment or cancellation of that designation.
            (3) The procedures in Schedule 3 to the Regulatory Law apply to a DFSA decision to designate an Authorised Firm as a SIB or to amend the designation.
            (4) If the DFSA decides to designate an Authorised Firm as a SIB or to amend the designation, the Authorised Firm may refer the matter to the FMT for review.
            (5) Paragraphs (3) and (4) do not apply to a DFSA decision to designate a G-SIB under PIB Rule 1.4.1 or to amend the designation.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 1.4.5 Guidance

              The Schedule 3 procedures and the right of review by the FMT do not apply to the designation of a G-SIB under Rule 1.4.1 (see Rule 1.4.4(5)). This is because the DFSA, under Rule 1.4.1, will designate a bank as a G-SIB if it is included on the list of global systemically important banks published by the Financial Stability Board.

              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

    • PIB 2 General Requirements

      • Introduction

        • PIB 2 Guidance

          This chapter details the threshold conditions for the mandatory maintenance of a Trading Book, periodic prudential reporting requirements to the DFSA, and guidance on prudent valuation practices. PIB Appendix 2 includes detailed Rules on the positions to be included in the Trading Book, the valuation of such positions, prudent valuation practices and associated issues related to the identification and treatment of Trading Book positions. PIB Appendix 2 also specifies the DFSA's expectations with regard to the need for a documented Trading Book policy and risk management systems and controls for the Trading Book. PIB Appendix 2 also presents in a tabular fashion, detailed specifications on periodic prudential reporting requirements for different categories of Authorised Firms.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 2.1 Application

        • PIB 2.1.1

          This chapter applies to an Authorised Firm in any Category.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 2.2 Trading Book

        • PIB 2.2.1

          An Authorised Firm must have a Trading Book if:

          (a) it has positions that must be included in a Trading Book in accordance with PIB section A2.1 of PIB App2;
          (b) those positions are held with trading intent in accordance with PIB Rule A2.1.5; and
          (c) the total value of the positions eligible for inclusion in the Trading Book pursuant to (a) and (b):
          (i) normally exceeds $15 million or 5% of its combined on and off-balance sheet positions; or
          (ii) has exceeded $20 million or 6% of its combined on and off-balance sheet positions at any time in the preceding twelve month period.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 2.2.2

          An Authorised Firm that must have a Trading Book in accordance with PIB Rule 2.2.1 must:

          (a) comply with the requirements of PIB section A2.1 of PIB App2; and
          (b) differentiate its business between Trading Book activity and Non-Trading Book activity on a consistent basis.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 2.2.3

          An Authorised Firm which has a Trading Book must have adequate systems and controls to:

          (a) monitor the size of its Trading Book; and
          (b) ensure that positions are included consistently in its Trading Book and Non-Trading Book so that:
          (i) the inclusion of hedging positions in the Trading Book or the Non-Trading Book at all times reflects the intent of the Authorised Firm in holding the position; and
          (ii) adequate records are made if positions are transferred between Trading and Non-Trading Books so that the transfers may be identified.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 2.3 Reporting to the DFSA

        • PIB 2.3.1

          (1) An Authorised Firm must comply with the accounting and prudential reporting requirements set out in this chapter and PRU which apply to it.
          (2) The DFSA may impose additional reporting requirements on an Authorised Firm.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 2.3.2

          An Authorised Firm must, subject to PIB Rule 2.3.3:

          (a) prepare its returns in accordance with the Rules in this chapter, the instructional guidelines in PRU, and the requirements of the DFSA's electronic prudential reporting system; and
          (b) submit the returns to the DFSA using the electronic prudential reporting system.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 2.3.2 Guidance

            The returns and instructional guidelines are provided in PRU and the DFSA's electronic prudential reporting system.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 2.3.3

          The DFSA may by way of a written notice direct an Authorised Firm to submit its returns in a form, manner or frequency other than as prescribed in PIB Rule 2.3.2. An Authorised Firm must continue to submit its returns in accordance with this direction until the DFSA by way of written notice directs otherwise.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 2.3.4

          (1) The submission of any return must be accompanied by a Form B100 (Declaration by Authorised Firms) signed by the Authorised Firm in the manner set out in (2) or (3) as applicable.
          (2) In relation to an annual return the form must be signed by two officers of the Authorised Firm each of whom is a Director, Partner or individual previously approved by the DFSA for that purpose.
          (3) In relation to a quarterly return the form must be signed by one officer of the Authorised Firm who is a Director, Partner or individual previously approved by the DFSA for that purpose.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 2.3.5

          An original signed hard copy of Form B100 (Declaration by Authorised Firms), together with a copy of the return submitted to the DFSA must be kept for at least 6 years for inspection by the DFSA.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 2.3.6

          If the DFSA notifies an Authorised Firm, or the Authorised Firm itself forms the view, that a return that has been submitted to the DFSA appears to be inaccurate or incomplete, the Authorised Firm must consider the matter and within a reasonable time it must correct any inaccuracies and make good any omissions, and re-submit the relevant parts of the return.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 2.3.7

          (1) An Authorised Firm must prepare and submit returns in accordance with Table 1 in PIB section A2.4 of PIB App2, which forms part of these Rules.
          (2) All returns must be completed in thousands of dollars ($).
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM135/2014 (Made 21st August 2014). [VER22/06-14]

        • PIB 2.3.8

          (1) An Authorised Firm must submit to the DFSA any annual return required by Table 1 in PIB section A2.4 of PIB App2, within four months of the end of the Authorised Firm's financial year.
          (2) An Authorised Firm must submit to the DFSA any other return required by Table 1 in PIB section A2.4 of PIB App2, within one month after the end of the reporting period to which the return relates.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM135/2014 (Made 21st August 2014). [VER22/06-14]

        • PIB 2.3.9 [Deleted]

          [Deleted] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 4th July 2017). [VER28/08-17]

          • PIB 2.3.9 Guidance [Deleted]

            [Deleted] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 2.4 Prudent Valuation Practices

        • PIB 2.4 Guidance

          1. This section and related PIB section A2.5 in PIB App2 provide Authorised Firms with Guidance on prudent valuation for positions that are accounted for at fair value, whether they are in the Trading Book or in the Non-Trading Book (also known as the banking book).
          2. A framework for prudent valuation practices should at a minimum include adequate systems and controls and valuation methodologies. The DFSA's expectations in this regard are set out in PIB section A2.5 PIB App2.
          3. The Guidance is especially important for positions without actual market prices or observable inputs to valuation, as well as less liquid positions which raise supervisory concerns about prudent valuation. The Guidance is not intended to require Authorised Firms to change valuation procedures for financial reporting purposes.
          4. The DFSA will assess an Authorised Firm's valuation procedures for consistency with the Guidance. The DFSA may impose a valuation adjustment if there is a material degree of inconsistency between the Authorised Firm's valuation procedures and the Guidance.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

    • PIB 3 Capital

      • Introduction

        • PIB 3 Guidance

          1. This chapter deals with all aspects of prudential requirements relating to capital adequacy. The chapter aims to ensure that an Authorised Firm maintains adequate capital to support the risks associated with its activities and that it can absorb potential unexpected losses to its capital. It also includes provisions forming part of the framework for assessing the capital adequacy of an Authorised Firm.
          2. PIB 3 Part 1 of this chapter deals with the application provisions. PIB 3 Part 2 outlines the fundamental capital adequacy obligations and systems and controls requirements to ensure compliance with this critical regulatory obligation. PIB 3 Part 3 includes all the Rules and associated guidance for the calculation of minimum Capital Requirement for different Categories of Authorised Firms. This part also specifies the requirements in respect of Capital Buffers and associated obligations. It specifies three types of Capital Buffers: the Capital Conservation Buffer, the Countercyclical Capital Buffer and the HLA Capital Buffer. PIB 3 Part 4 of this chapter specifies detailed Rules on the calculation of Capital Resources of an Authorised Firm, including detailed Rules on the eligibility criteria for different components of Capital Resources which correspond to varying levels of quality.
          3. PIB Appendix 3 provides detailed guidance on various aspects of stress and scenario testing which are required to be considered by an Authorised Firm to effectively comply with the Rules in this chapter.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 3 Part 1 — Application

        • PIB 3.1 Application

          • PIB 3.1.1

            The parts, sections and Rules in this chapter apply to an Authorised Firm as stated in those provisions.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.1.1 Guidance

              1. PIB 3 Part 2 of this chapter imposes a number of basic requirements, including the core requirement that the amount of a firm's Capital Resources must at all times exceed the amount of its Capital Requirement.
              2. In particular, note that:
              a. PIB Part 3 (Calculating Capital Requirements) applies to all firms, but with differentiated calculations for Capital Requirements for the various Categories of Authorised Firms as prescribed in sections PIB 3.3, PIB 3.4 and PIB 3.5;
              b. Within PIB 3 Part 3, an exemption from the calculation of Tier 2 (T2) Capital in relation to firms authorised to Manage a PSIAu is prescribed in PIB Rule 3.15.9; and
              c. PIB 3 Part 4 (Calculating Capital Resources) applies to all firms, but in a differentiated manner for different Categories of firms as demonstrated in the table in PIB section 3.11.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 3 Part 2 — Basic Requirements

        • PIB 3.2 Requirements

          • Application

            • PIB 3.2.1

              In this section:

              (a) Rules PIB 3.2.2 to PIB 3.2.5 apply to an Authorised Firm in any Category;
              (b) PIB Rule 3.2.6 applies only to an Authorised Firm in Category 3B, 3C or 4; and
              (c) PIB Rule 3.2.7 applies only to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • Maintaining Capital Resources

              • PIB 3.2.2

                An Authorised Firm that is a Domestic Firm must:

                (a) have and maintain, at all times, Capital Resources of the kinds and amounts specified in, and calculated in accordance with, the Rules in PIB; and
                (b) ensure that it maintains capital and liquid assets in addition to the requirement in (a) which are adequate in relation to the nature, size and complexity of its business to ensure that there is no significant risk that liabilities cannot be met as they fall due.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

                • PIB 3.2.2 Guidance

                  1. For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.2.2, an Authorised Firm's Governing Body should assess whether the Capital Resources which are required by the DFSA as set out in PIB are adequate in relation to the Authorised Firm's specific business. Additional resources should be maintained by the Authorised Firm where its Governing Body has considered that the required Capital Resources do not adequately reflect the nature and risks of the Authorised Firm's business.
                  2. The liabilities referred to in PIB Rule 3.2.2(b) include an Authorised Firm's contingent and prospective liabilities, such as liabilities arising from a change in business strategy or claims made against the Authorised Firm, but not liabilities that might arise from prospective transactions which the Authorised Firm could avoid, for example by ceasing its operations. Liabilities from prospective transactions refers to the potential liabilities which can be avoided by either adequate risk management, risk transfer or avoiding the transaction completely. This refers to any prospective transaction, for example, lending money to a borrower or entering into a contract for the provision of services by a service provider.
                  3. An Authorised Firm subject to the requirements in PIB chapter 10 may be required to meet Individual Capital Requirements under those Rules.
                  Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 3.2.3

                An Authorised Firm must have, at all times, Capital Resources which exceed the amount of its Capital Requirement.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

                • PIB 3.2.3 Guidance

                  The specific Capital Requirements for the various Categories of Authorised Firms are dealt with in sections PIB 3.3, PIB 3.4, PIB 3.5, PIB 3.9, PIB 3.9A and PIB 3.9B.

                  Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012).
                  [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18] [VER20/12-12]

            • Systems and Controls

              • Systems and Controls Guidance

                For the purposes of PIB section 3.2, an Authorised Firm is required to have systems and controls in place to enable it to be certain that it has adequate Capital Resources to comply with PIB Rule 3.2.3 at all times. An Authorised Firm's systems and controls should be such as to allow it to demonstrate its capital adequacy at any particular time if required to do so by the DFSA. Where through the operation of those systems and controls an Authorised Firm forms the view that it may not be able to satisfy the requirements of PIB Rule 3.2.3 in the future, that Authorised Firm is required to immediately inform the DFSA in accordance with PIB Rule 3.2.5.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 3.2.4

                An Authorised Firm that is a Branch must:

                (a) ensure that it has and maintains, at all times, liquid assets and access to financial resources which are adequate in relation to the nature, size and complexity of its business to ensure that there is no significant risk that liabilities cannot be met as they fall due;
                (b) ensure that it complies with its home state Financial Services Regulator's prudential requirements;
                (c) submit to the DFSA a copy of every capital adequacy summary report and leverage ratio report submitted to its home state Financial Services Regulator within ten business days of the due date for submission to that regulator; and
                (d) in the event of any anticipated or actual breach of any prudential requirements set by its home state Financial Services Regulator, notify the DFSA forthwith with any relevant documents.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
                [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

              • PIB 3.2.5

                (1) An Authorised Firm must have systems and controls to enable it to determine and monitor:
                (a) its Capital Requirement; and
                (b) whether the amount of its Capital Resources is, and is likely to remain, greater than the amount of its Capital Requirement.
                (2) Such systems and controls must include an analysis of:
                (a) realistic scenarios which are relevant to the circumstances of the Authorised Firm; and
                (b) the effects on the Capital Requirement of the Authorised Firm and on its Capital Resources if those scenarios occurred.
                (3) An Authorised Firm must notify the DFSA immediately and confirm in writing any breach, or expected breach, of any of the provisions of this chapter by the Authorised Firm.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

                • PIB 3.2.5 Guidance

                  1. PIB App3 provides Guidance on the nature and type of stress and scenario testing that Authorised Firms should be undertaking to support their view that they have adequate financial resources to meet their obligations.
                  2. The requirements in this chapter apply to Authorised Firms on a solo basis. An Authorised Firm may also be subject to Capital Resources requirements at a Group level. Group requirements are addressed in PIB chapter 8.
                  Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • Notifications to the DFSA

              • PIB 3.2.6

                (1) This Rule applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 3B, 3C or 4.
                (2) An Authorised Firm must notify the DFSA immediately and confirm in writing if its Capital Resources fall below 120% of its Capital Requirement.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • Requirements as to Composition of Capital

              • PIB 3.2.7

                (1) This Rule applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5.
                (2) Subject to PIB Rule 3.6.3 and (3), an Authorised Firm must at all times maintain the following components of capital:
                (a) where the Risk Capital Requirement forms part of the Capital Requirement of the firm under section PIB 3.3 or PIB 3.4:
                (i) CET1 Capital equating to at least 6.0% of the firm's Risk Weighted Assets; and
                (ii) T1 Capital equating to at least 8.0% of the firm's Risk Weighted Assets; or
                (b) where the Expenditure Based Capital Minimum forms the Capital Requirement of the firm under PIB section 3.4:
                (i) CET1 Capital equating to at least 60% of the firm's Expenditure Based Capital Minimum; and
                (ii) T1 Capital equating to at least 80% of the firm's Expenditure Based Capital Minimum.
                (3) The CET1 Capital used to meet the requirement in (2)(a) must not also be used as a component of a Capital Buffer.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
                [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

                • PIB 3.2.7 Guidance

                  1. It follows from Rule 3.2.7(2)(a) and Rule 3.2.3 that an Authorised Firm cannot use T2 Capital of more than 2% of its >Risk Weighted Assets to meet its Risk Capital Requirement.
                  2. It follows from Rule 3.2.7(2)(b) and Rule 3.2.3 that an Authorised Firm cannot use T2 Capital to meet more than 20% of its Expenditure Based Capital Minimum.
                  3. In accordance with Rules 3.9.5, PIB 3.9 A.3 and PIB 3.9B4 the CET1 Capital used for a Capital Buffer cannot constitute CET1 Capital for meeting the Risk Capital Requirement.
                  Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
                  [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 3 Part 3 — Calculating the Capital Requirement

        • PIB 3.3 Capital Requirements for Categories 1 and 5

          • PIB 3.3.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.3.2

            (1) The Capital Requirement for an Authorised Firm is calculated, subject to (2), as the higher of:
            (a) the applicable Base Capital Requirement; or
            (b) its Risk Capital Requirement plus applicable Capital Buffer Requirements.
            (2) Where the Authorised Firm has an ICR imposed on it then the Capital Requirement is its ICR plus Risk Capital Requirement plus applicable Capital Buffer Requirements.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.3.2 Guidance

              1. An Authorised Firm should refer to chapters PIB 4, PIB 5 and PIB 6 to determine whether it is required to calculate a Credit Risk Capital Requirement (also referred to in this module as CRCOM), a Market Risk Capital Requirement or an Operational Risk Capital Requirement, respectively.
              2. The Displaced Commercial Risk Capital Requirement will only apply to an Authorised Firm Managing a PSIAu.
              3. An Authorised Firm will also need to consider the relevant provisions in IFR chapter 5 when calculating its Credit Risk and Market Risk for Islamic Contracts.
              4. If an Individual Capital Requirement is imposed on an Authorised Firm under PIB Chapter 10, such a requirement is additional to the Risk Capital Requirement and is, therefore, a component of the Authorised Firms Capital Requirement.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • PIB 3.4 Capital Requirements for Categories 2 and 3A

          • PIB 3.4.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 2 or 3A.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.4.2

            (1) The Capital Requirement for an Authorised Firm is calculated, subject to (2), as the highest of:
            (a) the applicable Base Capital Requirement;
            (b) the Expenditure Based Capital Minimum; or
            (c) its Risk Capital Requirement plus applicable Capital Buffer Requirements.
            (2) Where the Authorised Firm has an ICR imposed on it then the Capital Requirement is its ICR plus Risk Capital Requirement plus applicable Capital Buffer Requirements.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.4.2 Guidance

              1. An Authorised Firm should refer to chapters 4, 5 and 6 to determine whether it is required to calculate a Credit Risk Capital Requirement (also referred to in this module as CRCOM), a Market Risk Capital Requirement or an Operational Risk Capital Requirement, respectively.
              2. An Authorised Firm will also need to consider the relevant provisions in IFR chapter 5 when calculating its Credit Risk and Market Risk for Islamic Contracts.
              3. If the DFSA imposes an Individual Capital Requirement on an Authorised Firm under PIB Chapter 10, such a requirement is additional to the Risk Capital Requirement and is, therefore, a component of the Authorised Firms Capital Requirement.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • PIB 3.5 Capital Requirements for Categories 3B, 3C and 4

          • PIB 3.5.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 3B, 3C or 4.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.5.2

            The Capital Requirement for such an Authorised Firm is calculated as the higher of:

            (a) the applicable Base Capital Requirement as set out in PIB section 3.6; or
            (b) the Expenditure Based Capital Minimum as set out in PIB section 3.7.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.5.3

            (1) An Authorised Firm to which this section applies must, at all times, maintain an amount which exceeds its Expenditure Based Capital Minimum in the form of liquid assets.
            (2) For the purpose of this Rule, and subject to (3), liquid assets comprise any of the following:
            (a) cash in hand;
            (b) money deposited with a regulated bank or deposit-taker which has a short-term credit rating of A1 or P1 (or equivalent) and above from an ECAI;
            (c) demand deposits with a tenor of 1 year or less with a bank or deposit-taker in (b);
            (d) time deposits with a tenor of 1 year or less which have an option to redeem the deposit at any time. In such cases, the deposit amount eligible to be included as liquid assets must be calculated as net of any costs associated with such early redemption;
            (e) cash receivable from a regulated clearing house and cash deposits with such clearing houses, other than any fees or contributions to guarantee or reserve funds of such clearing houses; or
            (f) any other asset which may be approved by the DFSA as comprising a liquid asset for the purpose of this Rule.
            (3) For the purpose of this Rule, liquid assets do not include:
            (a) any investment, asset or deposit which has been pledged as security or Collateral for any obligations or liabilities assumed by it or by any other third party; or
            (b) cash held in Client Money or Insurance Money accounts.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.6 Base Capital Requirement

          • PIB 3.6.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in any Category.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.6.1 Guidance

              The Base Capital Requirement is a component of the calculation of the Capital Requirement under sections PIB 3.3, PIB 3.4 and PIB 3.5.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.6.2

            The table below sets out the Base Capital Requirement for each Category of an Authorised Firm.

            Category Base Capital Requirement
            Category 1 US $10 million
            Category 2 US $2 million
            Category 3A

            US $500,000

            Category 3B US $4 million
            Category 3C

            US $500,000

            Except if the only Financial Service referred to in PIB Rule 1.3.5(a) that the Authorised Firm is authorised to carry on is Managing a Collective Investment Fund in which case its Base Capital Requirement is:
            (a) US $140,000 if it manages any Public Fund; or
            (b) US $70,000 otherwise
            Category 4

            US $ 10,000

            Except if the Authorised Firm is authorised to Operate a Crowdfunding Platform and it holds Client Assets, in which case its Base Capital Requirement is US $140,000.
            Category 5 US $10 million
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM188/2016 (Made 7th December 2016). [VER26/02-17]
            [Amended] DSFA RM203/2017 (Made 14th June 2017). [VER28/08-17]

          • PIB 3.6.3

            An Authorised Firm must have Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (CET1 Capital), as defined in PIB section 3.13, of not less than its relevant Base Capital Requirement at the time that it obtains authorisation and at all times thereafter.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.7 Expenditure Based Capital Minimum

          • PIB 3.7.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 2, 3A, 3B, 3C or 4.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.7.1 Guidance

              The Expenditure Based Capital Minimum is a component of the calculation of the Capital Requirement under sections PIB 3.4 and PIB 3.5 and is a key factor in the calculation of the capital components under PIB Rule 3.2.7.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.7.2

            An Authorised Firm must calculate its Expenditure Based Capital Minimum as:

            (a) subject to (b), in the case of an Authorised Firm which holds Client Assets or Insurance Monies, 18/52;
            (b) in the case of an Insurance Intermediary which holds Insurance Monies but not Client Assets, 9/52;
            (c) in the case of an Authorised Firm in Category 2, 3A, 3B or 3C which does not hold Client Assets or Insurance Monies, 13/52; or
            (d) in the case of an Authorised Firm in Category 4, which does not hold Insurance Monies, 6/52;

            of the Annual Audited Expenditure, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 3.7.3.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM183/2016 (Made 19 June 2016). [PIB/VER25/08-16]

          • Annual Audited Expenditure

            • PIB 3.7.3

              (1) Subject to PIB Rule 3.7.4, Annual Audited Expenditure constitutes all expenses and losses that arise in the Authorised Firm's normal course of business in a twelve month accounting period (excluding exceptional items) which are recorded in the Authorised Firm's audited profit and loss account, less the following items (if they are included in the Authorised Firm's audited profit and loss account):
              (a) staff bonuses, except to the extent that they are non-discretionary;
              (b) employees' and directors' shares in profits, including share options, except to the extent that they are non-discretionary;
              (c) other appropriations of profits, except to the extent that they are automatic;
              (d) shared commissions and fees payable that are directly related to commissions and fees receivable, which are included with total revenue;
              (e) fees, brokerage and other charges paid to clearing houses, exchanges and intermediate brokers for the purposes of executing, registering or clearing transactions;
              (f) any expenses for which pre-payments or advances have already been made to the respective claimant (e.g. pre-paid rent, pre-paid communication charges etc.) and deducted from Capital Resources as illiquid assets;
              (g) foreign exchange losses; and
              (h) contributions to charities.
              (2) For the purposes of (1)(c), a management charge must not be treated as an appropriation of profits.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.7.4

              (1) For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.7.3, an Authorised Firm must calculate its relevant Annual Audited Expenditure with reference to the Authorised Firm's most recent audited financial statements.
              (2) If the Authorised Firm's most recent audited financial statements do not represent a twelve month accounting period, it must calculate its Annual Audited Expenditure on a pro rata basis so as to produce an equivalent annual amount.
              (3) If an Authorised Firm has not completed its first twelve months of business operations, it must calculate its Annual Audited Expenditure based on forecast expenditure as reflected in the budget for the first twelve months of business operations, as submitted with its application for authorisation.
              (4)
              (a) If an Authorised Firm:
              (i) has a material change in its expenditure (either up or down); or
              (ii) has varied its authorised activities;
              it must recalculate its Annual Audited Expenditure and Expenditure Based Capital Minimum accordingly.
              (b) Where an Authorised Firm has recalculated its Annual Audited Expenditure and Expenditure Based Capital Minimum in accordance with (a), it must submit this recalculation to the DFSA within 7 days of its completion and seek agreement/approval from the DFSA. The DFSA may within 30 days of receiving the recalculation object to the recalculation and require the Authorised Firm to revise its Expenditure Based Capital Minimum.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.8 Risk Capital Requirement

          • PIB 3.8.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.8.1 Guidance

              The Risk Capital Requirement is a component of the calculation of the Capital Requirement under sections PIB 3.3 and PIB 3.4.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Calculation of Risk Capital Requirement

            • PIB 3.8.1A

              An Authorised Firm must calculate its Risk Capital Requirement as 10% of its Risk Weighted Assets.

              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Risk Weighted Assets

            • PIB 3.8.2

              An Authorised Firm must calculate its Risk Weighted Assets as 12.5 multiplied by the sum of the following:

              (a) the CRCOM;
              (b) the Market Risk Capital Requirement;
              (c) the Operational Risk Capital Requirement; and
              (d) the Displaced Commercial Risk Capital Requirement, where applicable.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • CRCOM

            • PIB 3.8.3

              An Authorised Firm must calculate its Credit Risk Capital Requirement in accordance with the applicable Rules in PIB chapter 4.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 3.8.3 Guidance

                1. Detailed Rules and Guidance in respect of the CRCOM are specified in PIB chapter 4. The CRCOM includes the risk weighted assets (RWA) for all Credit Risk Exposures and securitisation Exposures.
                2. Rules and Guidance in respect of calculating the CRCOM for Islamic Contracts are contained in IFR chapter 5.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Market Risk Capital Requirement

            • PIB 3.8.4

              An Authorised Firm must calculate its Market Risk Capital Requirement in accordance with the applicable Rules in PIB chapter 5.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 3.8.4 Guidance

                1. Detailed Rules and Guidance in respect of the Market Risk Capital Requirement and each of its components are contained in PIB chapter 5.
                2. Rules and Guidance in respect of calculating Market Risk for Islamic Contracts are contained in IFR chapter 5.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Operational Risk Capital Requirement

            • PIB 3.8.5

              An Authorised Firm must calculate its Operational Risk Capital Requirement in accordance with the applicable Rules in PIB chapter 6.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Displaced Commercial Risk Capital Requirement

            • PIB 3.8.6

              An Authorised Firm Managing a PSIAu must calculate its Displaced Commercial Risk Capital Requirement in accordance with IFR chapter 5.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.9 Capital Conservation Buffer

          • PIB 3.9.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 3.9.2

            Where, under section PIB 3.3 or PIB 3.4, the Risk Capital Requirement in PIB section 3.8 applies to an Authorised Firm, then the firm is subject to a Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 3.9.3

            The Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement is equivalent to 2.5% of an Authorised Firm's Risk Weighted Assets and must constitute only CET1 Capital.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 3.9.4

            (1) An Authorised Firm must maintain the required buffer amount, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 3.9.3, at all times.
            (2) The Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement applies on both a solo and a consolidated basis for Authorised Firms forming part of Financial Groups.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 3.9.5

            An Authorised Firm must not apply CET1 Capital that it maintains to meet the Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement towards meeting:

            (a) any Individual Capital Requirement the DFSA may imposed on it pursuant to PIB chapter 10; or
            (b) its Risk Capital Requirement;
            (c) its Countercyclical Capital Buffer Requirement; or
            (d) its HLA Capital Buffer Requirement.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • PIB 3.9A Countercyclical Capital Buffer (CCyB)

          • PIB 3.9A Guidance

            1. This section sets out when an Authorised Firm must maintain a Countercyclical Capital Buffer (CCyB) and how the buffer is calculated.
            2. A Countercyclical Capital Buffer is intended to take into account the macro-financial environment in which firms operate. If national authorities consider that excess credit growth has led to a build-up of system-wide risk, they can impose this measure to ensure the financial system has a buffer of capital to protect it against future potential losses.
            3. An Authorised Firm will need to maintain a Countercyclical Capital Buffer only if it has a credit exposure in a jurisdiction where a CCyB Authority has imposed a CCyB Rate.
            4. The Countercyclical Capital Buffer is in addition to the capital required under the Risk Capital Requirement and the Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 3.9A.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm if it:

            (a) is in Category 1, 2 or 5; and
            (b) has a Non-Financial Private Sector Credit Exposure in a jurisdiction for which a CCyB Rate applies.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Countercyclical Capital Buffer Requirement

            • PIB 3.9A.2

              An Authorised Firm must maintain a Countercyclical Capital Buffer of CET1 Capital that is calculated using the formula:

              CCyB = CCyB Rate x RWA

              where:

              (a) "CCyB" is the Countercyclical Capital Buffer that the Authorised Firm must maintain;
              (b) "CCyB Rate" is the weighted average of Countercyclical Capital Buffer Rates, calculated in accordance with Rule 3.9A.5, that apply in jurisdictions in which the Authorised Firm has Non-Financial Private Sector Credit Exposures; and
              (c) "RWA" is the value of the Authorised Firm's Risk Weighted Assets.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

              • PIB 3.9A2 Guidance

                1. The CCyB Requirement applies to credit exposures of an Authorised Firm that are 'Non-Financial Private Sector Risk Exposures'. PIB Rule 1.2.1 defines that expression to exclude credit exposures to other banks or to sovereigns, government bodies or agencies, or multilateral development banks.
                2. An Authorised Firm will need to follow the following steps to calculate its CCyB Requirement:
                a. identify the jurisdictions in which it has Non-Financial Private Sector Credit Exposures (Rule 3.9A.6 sets out how to determine the location of an exposure);
                b. identify if a CCyB Rate applies in that jurisdiction and, if so, the date on which it takes effect (see Rules 3.9A.7 to 3.9A.9);
                c. determine the weighted average of CCyB Rates applying to it (see Rule 3.9A.5); and
                d. multiply the weighted average by the value of its Risk Weighted Assets.
                Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9A.3

              An Authorised Firm must not apply CET1 Capital that it maintains to meet the Countercyclical Capital Buffer Requirement towards meeting:

              (a) its Risk Capital Requirement;
              (b) its Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement;
              (c) an HLA Capital Buffer Requirement; or
              (d) an Individual Capital Requirement that the DFSA may impose on it under PIB chapter 10.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9A.4

              The Countercyclical Capital Buffer Requirement applies on both a solo and a consolidated basis for Authorised Firms forming part of a Group.

              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Weighted Average of CCyB Rates

            • PIB 3.9A.5

              (1) The rate to be used to calculate an Authorised Firm's Countercyclical Capital Buffer is the weighted average of the CCyB Rates that apply in jurisdictions in which it has Non-Financial Private Sector Credit Exposures.
              (2) The weighting applied to the CCyB Rate in each jurisdiction is the riskweighted amount of an Authorised Firm's Non-Financial Private Sector Credit Exposures in that jurisdiction, divided by the risk-weighted amount of its Non-Financial Private Sector Credit Exposures in all jurisdictions.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Determining the location of credit exposures

            • PIB 3.9A.6

              (1) This Rule specifies how an Authorised Firm must determine the jurisdiction in which it has a Non-Financial Private Sector Credit Exposure.
              (2) The jurisdiction in which an Authorised Firm has an exposure is to be determined by allocating the exposure to the jurisdiction where, to the best of the Authorised Firm's knowledge and information, the risk ultimately lies.
              (3) If it is not reasonably possible to determine the jurisdiction of an exposure under (2), then the jurisdiction in which the Authorised Firm has the exposure is the jurisdiction where the exposure is booked.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

              • PIB 3.9A.6 Guidance

                1. The location of an Authorised Firm's credit exposure is determined according to the concept of 'ultimate risk', i.e. the location where the risk ultimately lies. This is usually the location of the counterparties, irrespective of the Authorised Firm's own physical location or place of incorporation.
                2. The following examples illustrate how the concept of ultimate risk applies:
                a. if a firm has an exposure to a borrower in country A, and the risk mitigant (e.g. a guarantor) is in country B, then the ultimate risk is in country B;
                b. if, in the example in a, the exposure is only partly mitigated, then the ultimate risk would be split between the uncovered portion in country A and a covered portion in country B;
                c. if a firm has an exposure to a borrower that is a Branch in country A, and the head office of the Branch is in country B, then the ultimate risk is in country B; and
                d. if a firm has an exposure to a borrower in country A, and the exposure is to finance a project in country B, then the ultimate risk is in country B.
                Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • The CCyB Rate that applies in a jurisdiction

            • PIB 3.9A.7

              (1) The Countercyclical Capital Buffer Rate for an exposure:
              (a) in the DIFC or elsewhere in the State, is the rate set by the Central Bank; and
              (b) outside the State, is the rate set by the CCyB Authority for that jurisdiction, unless the DFSA has specified a rate under PIB Rule 3.9A.8, in which case that specified rate applies.
              (2) If the rate specified by a CCyB Authority is more than 2.5% then it is taken to be equal to 2.5%, unless the DFSA specifies otherwise.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9A.8

              (1) If the DFSA considers that the CCyB Rate in a jurisdiction outside the State is not sufficient to protect Authorised Firms from the risks of excessive credit growth in that jurisdiction, it may, for credit exposures in that jurisdiction:
              (a) specify a CCyB Rate even though no rate is imposed by the CCyB Authority for that jurisdiction; or
              (b) specify a CCyB Rate that is higher than the rate imposed by the CCyB Authority for that jurisdiction.
              (2) If the DFSA specifies a rate under this Rule, then that rate applies for Non- Financial Private Sector Credit Exposures in the jurisdiction.
              (3) The DFSA may vary or cancel a specified rate under this Rule.
              (4) The DFSA must notify affected Authorised Firms if it specifies a rate, or if it varies or cancels a rate, under this Rule.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Effective date of CCyB Rates

            • PIB 3.9A.9

              (1) This Rule specifies when a CCyB Rate takes effect for the purposes of calculating a CCyB Buffer under this section.
              (2) A CCyB Rate for a jurisdiction takes effect from whichever is the later of:
              (a) 12 months after the CCyB Authority announces the rate or the DFSA notifies the rate under PIB Rule 3.9A.8 (as the case may be); or
              (b) 1 July 2018.
              (3) In exceptional circumstances, the DFSA may specify that a CCyB Rate is to take effect from a date earlier or later than that specified in (2).
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

              • PIB 3.9A.9 Guidance

                1. CCyB Rates are usually specified to apply after an advance announcement period i.e. a period between when it is announced and when it takes effect, which gives Authorised Firms sufficient time to adopt the new capital buffer. The effect of PIB Rule 3.9A.9(2)(a) is that Authorised Firms will usually have 12 months from the announcement to adopt a buffer.
                2. As a transitional measure, PIB Rule 3.9A.9(2)(b) has the effect that Authorised Firms will have at least 6 months from the day on which this section commences (1 January 2018) to adopt a buffer, even if the relevant rate was announced 12 months before the day the section commences.

                For example: If a CCyB Authority announced on 1 February 2017 a CCyB Rate of 1% that would apply to credit exposures in its jurisdiction, this would usually take effect on 1 February 2018. However, under PIB Rule 3.9A.9(2)(b), instead an Authorised Firm has until 1 July 2018 (6 months after the commencement of this Rule) to adopt the buffer.
                Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • PIB 3.9B HLA Capital Buffer

          • 3.9B Guidance

            Under PIB section 1.4, the DFSA may designate an Authorised Firm as a systemically important bank (SIB). This section requires a SIB to maintain a further capital buffer, a higher loss absorbency capital buffer (HLA Capital Buffer), and sets out how the HLA Capital Buffer is calculated.

            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 3.9B.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 that the DFSA has designated as a SIB.

            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • HLA Capital Buffer Requirement

            • PIB 3.9B.2

              A SIB must maintain an HLA Capital Buffer of CET1 Capital that is calculated using the following formula:

              HLA Capital Buffer = HLA Ratio x Relevant RWA

              where:

              "HLA Capital Buffer" is the HLA Capital Buffer that the Authorised Firm must maintain;

              "HLA Ratio" is the ratio determined by the DFSA for that Authorised Firm under PIB Rule 3.9B.6; and

              "Relevant RWA":

              (a) for a G-SIB, is the value of the its Risk Weighted Assets; or
              (b) for a D-SIB, is the value of its Risk Weighted Assets in jurisdictions for which it is considered to be systemically important.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9B.3

              If an Authorised Firm is both a G-SIB and a D-SIB, the HLA Capital Buffer that applies under this section is the higher of the amount calculated under PIB Rule 3.9B.2 for the firm as a G-SIB and the amount calculated under that Rule for the firm as a D-SIB.

              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9B.4

              An Authorised Firm must not apply CET1 Capital that it maintains to meet an HLA Capital Buffer Requirement towards meeting:

              (a) its Risk Capital Requirement;
              (b) its Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement;
              (c) its Countercyclical Capital Buffer Requirement; or
              (d) an Individual Capital Requirement that the DFSA has imposed on it under PIB chapter 10.

            • PIB 3.9B.5

              The HLA Capital Buffer Requirement applies on both a solo and a consolidated basis for Authorised Firms forming part of a Group.

              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • HLA ratio

            • PIB 3.9B.6

              (1) The DFSA must determine an HLA Ratio for each Authorised Firm that it designates as a G-SIB or D-SIB.
              (2) The HLA Ratio determined under (1) for a D-SIB must be not less than 1% and not more than 3.5%.
              (3) The DFSA may vary the HLA Ratio determined under this Rule, provided that for a D-SIB the ratio as varied is within the range specified in (2).
              (4) The procedures in Schedule 3 to the Regulatory Law apply to a DFSA decision to set or vary an HLA Ratio for an Authorised Firm.
              (5) If the DFSA decides to set or vary an HLA Ratio, the Authorised Firm may refer the matter to the FMT for review.
              (6) Paragraphs (4) and (5) do not apply to a decision relating to the HLA Ratio for a G-SIB designated under PIB Rule 1.4.1.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

              • PIB 3.9B.6 Guidance

                1. The DFSA is likely to base the HLA Ratio it determines for a G-SIB on the rate specified for that G-SIB by the Financial Stability Board, in consultation with the Basel Committee. For a D-SIB, the DFSA will determine an HLA Ratio that is between 1% and 3.5% (see PIB Rule 3.9B.6(2)).
                2. The Schedule 3 procedures and the right of review by the FMT do not apply to a rate applied to a G-SIB designated under PIB Rule 1.4.1. This is because the rate specified by the DFSA for such a G-SIB will be the rate recommended by the FSB and Basel Committee.
                Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • PIB 3.9C Failure to meet a Capital Buffer Requirement

          • PIB 3.9C Guidance

            This section sets out measures that an Authorised Firm must take if it is not meeting a Capital Buffer Requirement, i.e. its Capital Conservation Buffer Requirement, CCyB Requirement or HLA Capital Buffer Requirement. The measures, such as not distributing capital and preparing a plan to restore capitalS, do not limit other action that the DFSA may take against the firm for failing to meet the requirement.

            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 3.9C.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5.

            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Restrictions on Distributions

            • PIB 3.9C.2

              Where an Authorised Firm fails to meet a Capital Buffer Requirement requirement, it must:

              (a) calculate the maximum distributable amount in accordance with PIB Rule 3.9C.5;
              (b) ensure that it does not undertake any of the following actions until it has calculated the maximum distributable amount and notified the DFSA under PIB Rule 3.9C.6:
              (i) make a distribution in connection with CET1 Capital;
              (ii) create an obligation to pay variable remuneration or discretionary pension benefits or pay variable remuneration if the obligation to pay was created at a time when the institution failed to meet a Capital Buffer Requirement; or
              (iii) make payments on AT1 and T2 Capital instruments.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9C.3

              An Authorised Firm must:

              (1) in subsequently taking any of the actions described in PIB Rule 3.9C.2(b)(i) to (iii), ensure that it distributes no more than its calculated maximum distributable amount; and
              (2) prepare and submit a capital conservation plan pursuant to PIB Rule 3.9C.8.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9C.4

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.9C.2(b)(i), a distribution in connection with CET1 Capital includes any of the following:

              (a) payment of cash dividends;
              (b) distribution of fully or partly paid bonus shares or other capital instruments;
              (c) a redemption or purchase by an institution of its own shares or other capital instruments;
              (d) a repayment of amounts paid up in connection with capital; or
              (e) a distribution of other items referred to in PIB section 3.13 as eligible for inclusion as CET1 Capital.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9C.5

              (1) In this section, a reference to a "maximum distributable amount" means the maximum amount that an Authorised Firm may distribute in connection with CET1 Capital as specified in PIB Rules 3.9C.2 and 3.9C.3.
              (2) Subject to (3), an Authorised Firm must determine the maximum distributable amount by multiplying the sum specified in (a) by the factor determined under (b):
              (a) the total of interim or year-end profits that were not included in CET1 Capital pursuant to PIB Rule 3.13.2 and which have accrued after the most recent distribution of profits and after any of the actions referred to in PIB Rule 3.9C.2(b);
              (b) where the CET1 Capital of the Authorised Firm (which is not used to meet the Capital Requirement), expressed as a percentage of the firm's RWA, is:
              (i) within the first quartile (0%-25%) of its Capital Buffer, the factor is 0;
              (ii) within the second quartile (25%-50%) of its Capital Buffer, the factor is 0.2;
              (iii) within the third quartile (50%-75%) of its Capital Buffer, the factor is 0.4; and
              (iv) within the fourth quartile (75%-100%) of its Capital Buffer, the factor is 0.6.
              (3) If an Authorised Firm undertakes any action under PIB Rule 3.9C.2(b), it must take that into account and reduce the maximum distributable amount accordingly.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9C.6

              For the purpose of PIB Rule 3.9C.2(b), where an Authorised Firm intends to distribute any of its distributable profits or intends to undertake an action referred to in PIB Rule 3.9C.2(b)(i) to (iii), the Authorised Firm must notify the DFSA and provide the following information:

              (a) the amount of capital maintained by the Authorised Firm, subdivided as follows:
              (i) CET1 Capital,
              (ii) AT1 Capital, and
              (iii) T2 Capital;
              (b) the amount of its interim and year-end profits;
              (c) the maximum distributable amount calculated in accordance with this section; and
              (d) the amount of distributable profits it intends to allocate between the following:
              (i) dividend payments,
              (ii) share buybacks,
              (iii) payments on AT1 Capital instruments, and
              (iv) the payment of variable remuneration or discretionary pension benefits, whether by creation of a new obligation to pay, or by payment pursuant to an obligation to pay created at a time when the institution failed to meet a Capital Buffer Requirement.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

              • PIB 3.9.6 Guidance

                Upon receiving a notification under this Rule, the DFSA will make an assessment of the firm's ability to meet and maintain its Capital Requirement on a sustainable basis going forward.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
                [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9C.7

              An Authorised Firm must maintain systems and processes to ensure that the amount of distributable profits and the maximum distributable amount are calculated accurately, and must be able to demonstrate that accuracy to the DFSA on request.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Capital Conservation Plan

            • PIB 3.9C.8

              Where an Authorised Firm fails to meet a Capital Buffer Requirement, it must prepare a capital conservation plan and submit it to the DFSA no later than 5 business days after it identified its failure to meet Capital Buffer Requirement. The capital conservation plan must include the following:

              (a) estimates of income and expenditure and a forecast balance sheet;
              (b) measures to increase the Capital Resources of the Authorised Firm;
              (c) a plan and timeframe for the increase of own funds with the objective of restoring the Capital Buffer; and
              (d) any other information the DFSA might need in order effectively to carry out its considerations referred to in PIB Rule 3.9C.9.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 3.9C.9

              (1) Following assessment, the DFSA will approve the capital conservation plan only if it considers that the plan, if implemented, would be reasonably likely to conserve or raise sufficient capital to enable the Authorised Firm to meet its Capital Requirement and Capital Buffer Requirement, within a period that the DFSA considers appropriate.
              (2) If the DFSA does not approve the capital conservation plan, the DFSA may require the Authorised Firm to increase its CET1 Capital to meet the Capital Requirement and the Capital Buffer Requirement, within a specified period of time.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 3 Part 4 — Calculating Capital Resources

        • PIB 3.10 Application

          • PIB 3.10.1

            This part applies to an Authorised Firm in any Category.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.10.1 Guidance

              The earlier PIB section 3.2 imposes a number of basic requirements on an Authorised Firm, including requirements to:

              a. have and maintain Capital Resources in accordance with these Rules (see PIB Rule 3.2.2); and
              b. maintain an amount of Capital Resources that exceeds the amount of the firm's Capital Requirement (see PIB Rule 3.2.3).
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.11 Calculation of Capital Resources

          • PIB 3.11.1

            The total of Capital Resources is derived according to the following formula:

            T1 Capital + T2 Capital = Capital Resources

            where:

            (a) "T1 Capital" represents Tier 1 capital as the sum of CET1 Capital and AT1 Capital;
            (b) "CET1 Capital" represents Common Equity Tier 1 capital assessed in accordance with PIB section 3.13;
            (c) "AT1 Capital" represents Additional Tier 1 capital assessed in accordance with PIB section 3.14; and
            (d) "T2 Capital" represents Tier 2 capital assessed in accordance with PIB section 3.15.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.11.2

            An Authorised Firm must calculate its Capital Resources in accordance with the table below and the provisions in sections PIB 3.12 to PIB 3.15.

             
            (A1) Elements of Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1) Capital
            (A2) Adjustments to/deductions from CET1 Capital
            (A3) CET1 Capital = A1 — A2
             
            (A4) Elements of Additional Tier 1 (AT1) Capital
            (A5) Deductions from AT1 Capital
            (A6) AT1 Capital = A4 — A5
             
            (A7) Tier 1 (T1) Capital = A3 + A6
             
            (A8) Elements of Tier 2 (T2) Capital
            (A9) Deductions from T2 Capital
            (A10) Tier 2 (T2) Capital = A8 — A9
             
            (A11) Capital Resources = A7 + A10
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.12 Tier 1 capital (T1 Capital)

          • PIB 3.12.1

            The Tier 1 capital (referred to in these Rules as T1 Capital) of an Authorised Firm must be calculated as the total of its Common Equity Tier 1 capital (referred to in these Rules as CET1 Capital) and its Additional Tier 1 capital (referred to in these Rules as AT1 Capital).

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.13 Common Equity Tier 1 capital (CET1 Capital)

          • PIB 3.13.1

            The CET1 Capital constitutes the sum of CET1 capital elements in PIB Rule 3.13.2, subject to the adjustments, deductions and exemptions stipulated later in this section.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.13.2

            CET1 Capital consists of the sum of the following capital elements:

            (a) capital instruments, provided the conditions laid down in PIB Rule 3.13.3 are fully met;
            (b) share premium accounts related to the instruments referred to in (a);
            (c) retained earnings;
            (d) accumulated other comprehensive income, as defined in the International Financial Reporting Standards; and
            (e) other reserves which are required to be disclosed under International Financial Reporting Standards, excluding any amounts already included in accumulated other comprehensive income or retained earnings.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.13.3

            (1) For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.2(a), a capital instrument is eligible for inclusion in CET1 Capital where all the following conditions are met:
            (a) the instruments are issued directly by the Authorised Firm with the prior approval of the shareholders of the Authorised Firm;
            (b) the instruments are fully paid up and their purchase is not funded directly or indirectly by the Authorised Firm;
            (c) the instruments meet all the following conditions as regards their classification:
            (i) they qualify as equity capital within the meaning of the DIFC Companies Law;
            (ii) they are classified as equity within the meaning of the International Financial Reporting Standards; and
            (iii) they are classified as equity capital for the purposes of determining balance sheet insolvency, under the DIFC Insolvency Law;
            (d) the instruments are clearly and separately disclosed on the balance sheet in the financial statements of the Authorised Firm;
            (e) the instruments are perpetual;
            (f) the principal amount of the instruments may not be reduced or repaid, except in either of the following cases:
            (i) the liquidation of the Authorised Firm; or
            (ii) discretionary repurchases of the instruments or other discretionary means of reducing capital, where the Authorised Firm has notified the DFSA of its intention to do so, in writing, at least 30 days prior to taking such steps;
            (g) the provisions governing the instruments do not indicate expressly or implicitly that the principal amount of the instruments would or might be reduced or repaid other than in the liquidation of the Authorised Firm, and the Authorised Firm does not otherwise provide such an indication prior to or at issuance of the instruments;
            (h) the instruments meet the following conditions as regards distributions:
            (i) there are no preferential distributions, including in relation to other CET1 Capital instruments, and the terms governing the instruments do not provide preferential rights to payment of distributions;
            (ii) distributions to holders of the instruments may be paid only out of distributable items;
            (iii) the conditions governing the instruments do not include a cap or other restriction on the maximum level of distributions;
            (iv) the level of distributions is not determined on the basis of the amount for which the instruments were purchased at issuance;
            (v) the conditions governing the instruments do not include any obligation for the Authorised Firm to make distributions to their holders and the Authorised Firm is not otherwise subject to such an obligation; and
            (vi) non-payment of distributions does not constitute an event of default of the Authorised Firm;
            (i) compared to all the capital instruments issued by the Authorised Firm, the instruments absorb the first and proportionately greatest share of losses as they occur, and each instrument absorbs losses to the same degree as all other CET1 Capital instruments;
            (j) the instruments rank below all other claims in the event of insolvency or liquidation of the Authorised Firm;
            (k) the instruments entitle their owners to a claim on the residual assets of the Authorised Firm, which, in the event of its liquidation and after the payment of all senior claims, is proportionate to the amount of such instruments issued and is not fixed or subject to a cap;
            (l) the instruments are not secured, or guaranteed by any of the following:
            (i) the Authorised Firm or its Subsidiaries;
            (ii) any Parent of the Authorised Firm or its Subsidiaries; or
            (iii) any member of its Financial Group; and
            (m) the instruments are not subject to any arrangement, contractual or otherwise, that enhances the seniority of claims under the instruments in insolvency or liquidation.
            (2) The conditions in (1)(i) must be complied with notwithstanding a write down on a permanent basis of the principal amount of AT1 Capital instruments.
            (3) Where any of the conditions in (1) cease to be met:
            (a) the instrument must cease to qualify as a CET1 Capital instrument; and
            (b) the share premium accounts that relate to that instrument must cease to qualify as a CET1 element.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.13.4

            For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.2(c), an Authorised Firm may include interim or year-end net profits in CET1 Capital before the Authorised Firm has approved its annual audited accounts confirming its final profit or loss for the year, but only where:

            (a) those profits have been reviewed by the External Auditor of the Authorised Firm, who is responsible for auditing its accounts; and
            (b) the Authorised Firm is fully satisfied that any foreseeable charge or dividend has been deducted from the amount of those net profits.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.13.4 Guidance

              The review of the interim or year-end profits of the Authorised Firm referred to in PIB Rule 3.13.4 should provide an adequate level of assurance that those profits have been evaluated in accordance with the principles set out in the International Financial Reporting Standards. The DFSA may request an Authorised Firm to provide it with a copy of its external auditor's opinion on whether the interim profits are reasonably stated.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • CET1 Adjustments

            • PIB 3.13.5

              An Authorised Firm must, in the calculation of CET1 Capital, exclude the following:

              (a) any increase in its equity under the International Financial Reporting Standards; including:
              (i) where such an increase is associated with future margin income that results in a gain on sale for the Authorised Firm; and
              (ii) where the Authorised Firm is the Originator of a securitisation, net gains that arise from the capitalisation of future income from the securitised assets that provide Credit Enhancement to positions in the securitisation;
              (b) the amount of cash flow hedge reserve related to gains or losses on cash flow hedges of financial instruments that are not valued at fair value, including projected cash flows; and
              (c) all unrealised gains or losses on liabilities of the Authorised Firm that are valued at fair value, and which result from changes in the Authorised Firm's own credit quality, except when such gains or losses are offset by a change in the fair value of another financial instrument which is measured at fair value and resulting from changes in the Authorised Firm's own credit quality.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.13.6

              Except for the items referred to in PIB Rule 3.13.5, an Authorised Firm must not make any adjustments to remove from its Capital Resources unrealised gains or losses on their assets or liabilities measured at fair value.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 3.13.6 Guidance

                An Authorised Firm is expected to follow the guidance provided in respect of prudent valuation in PIB section 2.4 and in PIB App2, in valuing all its assets measured at fair value while calculating its Capital Resources.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • CET1 Deductions

            • PIB 3.13.7

              Subject to the following Rules in this section, an Authorised Firm must deduct the following from the calculation of its CET1 Capital:

              (a) losses for the current financial year;
              (b) goodwill and other intangible assets as defined in the International Financial Reporting Standards;
              (c) deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability;
              (d) defined benefit pension fund assets of the Authorised Firm;
              (e) the applicable amount, by reference to PIB Rule 3.13.12, of direct and indirect holdings by an Authorised Firm of its own CET1 Capital instruments including instruments under which an Authorised Firm is under an actual or contingent obligation to effect a purchase by virtue of an existing contractual obligation;
              (f) holdings of the CET1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where those entities have a reciprocal cross holding with the Authorised Firm which have the effect of artificially inflating the Capital Resources of the Authorised Firm;
              (g) the applicable amount, by reference to PIB Rule 3.13.13, of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of CET1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where the Authorised Firm does not have a significant investment in those entities;
              (h) the applicable amount, by reference to Rules PIB 3.13.13 and PIB 3.13.18, of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the CET1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where the Authorised Firm has a significant investment in those entities;
              (i) the amount of items required to be deducted from the calculation of AT1 Capital in accordance with the relevant Rules under PIB section 3.14, that exceeds the AT1 Capital of the Authorised Firm;
              (j) the Exposure amount of the following items which qualify for a risk weight of 1000%, where the Authorised Firm deducts that Exposure amount from CET1 Capital as an alternative to applying a risk weight of 1000%;
              (i) Qualifying Holdings;
              (ii) securitisation positions, in accordance with relevant Rules in PIB chapter 4; and
              (iii) free deliveries, in accordance with the Rules in PIB section A4.6; and
              (k) for an Authorised Firm which is a Partnership or Limited Liability Partnership, the amount by which the aggregate of the amounts withdrawn by its partners or members exceeds the profits of that firm.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • CET1 Deductions Relating to Intangible Assets

            • PIB 3.13.8

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(b), an Authorised Firm must determine the intangible assets to be deducted in accordance with the following:

              (a) the amount to be deducted must be reduced by the amount of associated deferred tax liabilities that would be extinguished if the intangible assets became impaired or were derecognised under the International Financial Reporting Standards; and
              (b) the amount to be deducted must include goodwill included in the valuation of significant investments of the Authorised Firm.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • CET1 Deductions Relating to Deferred Tax Assets

            • PIB 3.13.9

              (1) For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(c), and subject to (2), the amount of deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability must be calculated without reducing it by the amount of the associated deferred tax liabilities of the Authorised Firm.
              (2) The amount of deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability may be reduced by the amount of the associated deferred tax liabilities of the Authorised Firm, provided the following conditions are met:
              (a) those deferred tax assets and associated deferred tax liabilities both arise from the tax law of the same tax jurisdiction; and
              (b) the taxation authority of that tax jurisdiction permits the offsetting of deferred tax assets and the associated deferred tax liabilities.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 3.13.9 Guidance

                1. Associated deferred tax liabilities of the Authorised Firm used for the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.9 may not include deferred tax liabilities that reduce the amount of intangible assets or defined benefit pension fund assets required to be deducted. The amount of associated deferred tax liabilities referred to in this guidance should be allocated between the following:
                a. deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability and arise from temporary differences that are not deducted as part of a threshold exemption for deductions from CET1 Capital; and
                b. all other deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability.
                2. An Authorised Firm should allocate the associated deferred tax liabilities according to the proportion of deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability that the items referred to in Guidance note 1a and b represent.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.13.10

              (1) An Authorised Firm must apply a risk weight in accordance with PIB chapter 4 as applicable, to deferred tax assets that do not rely on future profitability.
              (2) For the purpose of (1), deferred tax assets that do not rely on future profitability comprise the following:
              (a) overpayments of tax by the Authorised Firm for the current year;
              (b) current year tax losses of the Authorised Firm carried back to previous years that give rise to a claim on, or a receivable from, a central government, regional government or local tax authority; and
              (c) deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences which, in the event the Authorised Firm incurs a loss, becomes insolvent or enters liquidation, are replaced, on a mandatory and automatic basis in accordance with the applicable national law, with a claim on the central government of the jurisdiction in which the Authorised Firm is incorporated which must absorb losses to the same degree as CET1 Capital instruments on a going concern basis and in the event of insolvency or liquidation of the Authorised Firm.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Deductions Relating to Defined Benefit Pension Fund Assets

            • PIB 3.13.11

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(d), the amount of defined benefit pension fund assets to be deducted from CET1 Capital must be reduced by the following:

              (a) the amount of any associated deferred tax liability which could be extinguished if the assets became impaired or were derecognised under the International Financial Reporting Standards; and
              (b) the amount of assets in the defined benefit pension fund which the Authorised Firm has an unrestricted ability to use where the Authorised Firm has provided adequate advance notification of its intention to use those assets to the DFSA. Those assets used to reduce the amount to be deducted must receive a risk weight in accordance with PIB chapter 4 of PIB.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Deductions Relating to Holdings of Own CET1 Capital Instruments

            • PIB 3.13.12

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(e), an Authorised Firm must calculate holdings of its own CET1 Capital instruments on the basis of gross long positions subject to the following exceptions:

              (a) an Authorised Firm must calculate the amount of holdings of own CET1 Capital instruments in the Trading Book on the basis of the net long position, provided the long and short positions are in the same underlying Exposure and the short positions involve no Counterparty Credit Risk;
              (b) an Authorised Firm must determine the amount to be deducted for indirect holdings in the Trading Book that take the form of holdings of index Securities by calculating the underlying Exposure to own CET1 Capital instruments included in the indices; and
              (c) an Authorised Firm must net gross long positions in own CET1 Capital instruments in its Trading Book resulting from holdings of index Securities against short positions in own CET1 Capital instruments resulting from short positions in the underlying indices, including where those short positions involve Counterparty Credit Risk.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • CET1 Deductions Relating to Significant Investment in a Relevant Entity

            • PIB 3.13.13

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(g) and (h), an investment by an Authorised Firm in a Relevant Entity must be considered as a significant investment if it meets any of the following conditions:

              (a) the Authorised Firm owns more than 10% of the CET1 Capital instruments issued by that entity;
              (b) the Authorised Firm has Close Links with that entity and owns CET1 Capital instruments issued by that entity; and
              (c) the Authorised Firm owns CET1 Capital instruments issued by that entity and the entity is not included in consolidation pursuant to PIB chapter 8 but is included in the same accounting consolidation as the Authorised Firm for the purposes of financial reporting under the International Financial Reporting Standards.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Deductions Relating to CET1 Capital Instruments in Relevant Entities

            • PIB 3.13.14

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(f), (g) and (h), the amount of holdings of CET1 Capital instruments and other capital instruments of Relevant Entities to be deducted, must be calculated, subject to PIB Rule 3.13.15, on the basis of the gross long positions.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.13.15

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(g) and (h), an Authorised Firm must make the deductions in accordance with the following:

              (a) the holdings in the Trading Book of the capital instruments of Relevant Entities must be calculated on the basis of the net long position in the same underlying Exposure provided the maturity of the short position matches the maturity of the long position or has a residual maturity of at least one year; and
              (b) the amount to be deducted for indirect holdings in the Trading Book of the capital instruments of Relevant Entities that take the form of holdings of index Securities must be determined by calculating the underlying Exposure to the capital instruments of the Relevant Entities in the indices.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.13.16

              (1) For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(g), the amount to be deducted is calculated by multiplying the amount referred to in (a) by the factor derived from the calculation referred to in (b):
              (a) the aggregate amount by which the direct, indirect and synthetic holdings by the Authorised Firm of the CET1, AT1 and T2 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities, in which the Authorised Firm does not have a significant investment, exceeds 10% of the CET1 items of the Authorised Firm calculated after applying the following to CET1 items:
              (i) all of the adjustments referred to in Rules PIB 3.13.5 and PIB 3.13.6;
              (ii) the deductions referred to in PIB Rule 3.13.7(a) to (f) and (h) to (j), excluding the amount to be deducted for deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability and arise from temporary differences; and
              (iii) the deductions referred to in Rules PIB 3.13.14 and PIB 3.13.15;
              (b) the amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the CET1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities divided by the aggregate amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the CET1, AT1 and T2 Capital instruments issued by those Relevant Entities.
              (2) An Authorised Firm must exclude Underwriting positions held for 5 working days or fewer from the amount referred to in (1)(a) and from the calculation of the factor referred to in (1)(b).
              (3) The amount to be deducted pursuant to (1) must be apportioned across each CET1 Capital instrument held. An Authorised Firm must determine the portion of holdings of CET1 Capital instruments that is to be deducted pursuant to (1) by dividing the amount specified in (a) by the amount specified in (b):
              (a) the amount of holdings required to be deducted pursuant to (1)(a);
              (b) the aggregate amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of all the capital instruments of Relevant Entities in which the Authorised Firm does not have a significant investment.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.13.17

              (1) The amount of holdings referred to in PIB Rule 3.13.7(g) that is equal to or less than 10% of the CET1 items of the Authorised Firm after applying the provisions laid down in (1)(a)(i) to (iii) must not be deducted and must be subject to the applicable risk weights in accordance with PIB chapter 4.
              (2) An Authorised Firm must determine the portion of holdings of all the capital instruments that is risk weighted by dividing the amount specified in (a) by the amount specified in (b):
              (a) the amount of holdings required to be risk weighted pursuant to PIB Rule 3.13.17(1);
              (b) the aggregate amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of all the capital instruments of Relevant Entities in which the Authorised Firm does not have a significant investment.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.13.18

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.13.7(h), the amount to be deducted from CET1 elements must exclude Underwriting positions held for 5 working days or fewer and must be determined in accordance with Rules PIB 3.13.14 and PIB 3.13.15.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • CET1 Exemptions from Deductions

            • PIB 3.13.19

              (1) In making the deductions required pursuant to PIB Rule 3.13.7(c) and (h), an Authorised Firm must not deduct the items listed in (a) and (b), where in aggregate they are equal to or less than 15% of CET1 Capital:
              (a) deferred tax assets that are dependent on future profitability and arise from temporary differences, and in aggregate are equal to or less than 10% of the CET1 items of the Authorised Firm calculated after applying the following:
              (i) adjustments referred in Rules PIB 3.13.5 and PIB 3.13.6; and
              (ii) deductions referred to in (a) to (g) and (i) to (j) of PIB Rule 3.13.7, excluding deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability and arise from temporary differences.
              (b) where an Authorised Firm has a significant investment in a Relevant Entity, the direct and indirect holdings of that Authorised Firm of the CET1 Capital instruments of those entities that in aggregate are equal to or less than 10% of the CET1 items of the Authorised Firm calculated after applying the following:
              (i) adjustments referred in Rules PIB 3.13.5 and PIB 3.13.6; and
              (ii) deductions referred to in (a) to (h) and (i) to (j) of PIB Rule 3.13.7 excluding deferred tax assets that rely on future profitability and arise from temporary differences.
              (2) Items that are not deducted pursuant to (1) must be risk weighted at 200% and subject to the requirements of PIB chapter 4, as applicable.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.14 Additional Tier 1 Capital (AT1 Capital)

          • PIB 3.14.1

            The AT1 Capital constitutes the sum of AT1 Capital elements in PIB Rule 3.14.2, subject to the deductions stipulated later in this section.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.14.2

            AT1 Capital consists of the sum of the following capital elements:

            (a) capital instruments which meet the eligibility criteria laid down in PIB Rule 3.14.3; and
            (b) the share premium accounts related to the instruments referred to in (a).
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.14.3

            (1) For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.14.2(a), a capital instrument is eligible for inclusion in AT1 Capital where all the following conditions are met:
            (a) the instruments are issued and paid up;
            (b) the instruments are not purchased by any of the following:
            (i) the Authorised Firm or its Subsidiaries; or
            (ii) an Undertaking in which the Authorised Firm has participation in the form of ownership, direct or by way of control, of 20% or more of the voting rights or capital of that Undertaking;
            (c) the purchase of the instruments is not funded directly or indirectly by the Authorised Firm;
            (d) the instruments rank below T2 Capital instruments in the event of the insolvency of the Authorised Firm;
            (e) the instruments are not secured, or guaranteed by any of the following:
            (i) the Authorised Firm or its Subsidiaries;
            (ii) any Parent of the Authorised Firm or their Subsidiaries;
            (iii) any member of its Financial Group in accordance with PIB chapter 8; or
            (iv) any Undertaking that has Close Links with entities referred to in (i) to (iii);
            (f) the instruments are not subject to any arrangement, contractual or otherwise that enhances the seniority of the claim under the instruments in insolvency or liquidation;
            (g) the instruments are perpetual and the provisions governing them include no incentive for the Authorised Firm to redeem them;
            (h) where the provisions governing the instruments include one or more call options, the option to call may be exercised at the sole discretion of the issuer;
            (i) the instruments may be called, redeemed or repurchased only where the Authorised Firm has notified the DFSA of its intention to call, redeem or repurchase the instruments in writing and well in advance, and not before 5 years after the date of issuance of the respective instruments;
            (j) the provisions governing the instruments do not indicate explicitly or implicitly that the instruments would or might be called, redeemed or repurchased and the Authorised Firm does not otherwise provide such an indication;
            (k) the Authorised Firm does not indicate explicitly or implicitly that the DFSA would not object to a plan to call, redeem or repurchase the instruments;
            (l) distributions under the instruments meet the following conditions:
            (i) they are paid out of distributable items;
            (ii) the level of distributions made on the instruments will not be modified based on the credit standing of the Authorised Firm or any of its Parents or any entities in its Financial Group;
            (iii) the provisions governing the instruments give the Authorised Firm full discretion at all times to cancel the distributions on the instruments for an unlimited period and on a non-cumulative basis, and the Authorised Firm may use such cancelled payments without restriction to meet its obligations as they fall due;
            (iv) cancellation of distributions does not constitute an event of default of the Authorised Firm; and
            (v) the cancellation of distributions imposes no restrictions on the Authorised Firm;
            (m) the instruments do not contribute to a determination that the liabilities of an Authorised Firm exceed its assets, where such a determination constitutes a test of insolvency under the DIFC Insolvency Law;
            (n) the provisions governing the instruments require the principal amount of the instruments to be written down, or the instruments to be converted to CET1 Capital instruments, upon the occurrence of a trigger event;
            (o) the provisions governing the instruments include no feature that could hinder the recapitalisation of the Authorised Firm ; and
            (p) where the instruments are not issued directly by the Authorised Firm or by an operating entity within the Financial Group to which the Authorised Firm belongs, or by the Parent of the Authorised Firm , the proceeds are immediately available without limitation in a form that satisfies the conditions laid down in this Rule to any of the following:
            (i) the Authorised Firm ;
            (ii) an operating entity within the Financial Group to which the Authorised Firm belongs; or
            (iii) any Parent of the Authorised Firm .
            (2) For the purposes of (1)(l)(v) and (1)(o), the provisions governing AT1 Capital instruments must not include the following:
            (a) a requirement for distributions on the instruments to be made in the event of a distribution being made on an instrument issued by the Authorised Firm that ranks to the same degree as, or more junior than, an AT1 Capital instrument;
            (b) a requirement for the payment of distributions on CET1, AT1 or T2 Capital instruments to be cancelled in the event that distributions are not made on those AT1 Capital instruments; or
            (c) an obligation to substitute the payment of interest or dividend by a payment in any other form.
            (3) For the purposes of (1)(n), the following provisions apply to AT1 Capital instruments:
            (a) a trigger event occurs when the CET1 Capital of the Authorised Firm falls below either of the following:
            (i) 66.25% of its Capital Requirement; or
            (ii) a level higher than 66.25%, where determined by the Authorised Firm and specified in the provisions governing the instrument;
            (b) where the provisions governing the instruments require them to be converted into CET1 Capital instruments upon the occurrence of a trigger event, those provisions must specify either of the following:
            (i) the rate of such conversion and a limit on the permitted amount of conversion; or
            (ii) a range within which the instruments will convert into CET1 Capital instruments;
            (c) where the provisions governing the instruments require their principal amount to be written down upon the occurrence of a trigger event, the write down must reduce all the following:
            (i) the claim of the holder of the instrument in the liquidation of the Authorised Firm ;
            (ii) the amount required to be paid in the event of the call of the instrument; and
            (iii) the distributions made on the instrument.
            (4) The following must apply where, in the case of an AT1 Capital instrument, the conditions laid down in this Rule cease to be met:
            (a) that instrument must cease to qualify as an AT1 Capital instrument; and
            (b) the part of the share premium accounts that relates to that instrument must cease to qualify as an AT1 Capital element.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • AT1 Regulatory Deductions

            • PIB 3.14.4

              Subject to the following Rules in this section, an Authorised Firm must deduct the following from the calculation of its AT1 Capital:

              (a) direct and indirect holdings by an Authorised Firm of own AT1 Capital instruments including instruments under which an Authorised Firm is under an actual or contingent obligation to effect a purchase by virtue of an existing contractual obligation;
              (b) holdings of the AT1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where those entities have a reciprocal cross holding with the Authorised Firm which have the effect of artificially inflating the Capital Resources of the Authorised Firm ;
              (c) the amount determined in accordance with PIB Rule 3.14.8 of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the AT1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where the Authorised Firm does not have a significant investment in those entities ;
              (d) direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the AT1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where the Authorised Firm has a significant investment in those entities, excluding Underwriting positions held for 5 working days or fewer; and
              (e) the amounts required to be deducted from T2 Capital pursuant to PIB Rule 3.15.4 that exceed the T2 Capital of the Authorised Firm .
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Deductions Relating to Holdings of Own AT1 Capital Instruments

            • PIB 3.14.5

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.14.4(a), an Authorised Firm must calculate holdings of its own AT1 Capital instruments on the basis of gross long positions subject to the following exceptions:

              (a) an Authorised Firm must calculate the amount of holdings of own AT1 Capital instruments in the Trading Book on the basis of the net long position provided the long and short positions are in the same underlying Exposure and the short positions involve no Counterparty Credit Risk;
              (b) an Authorised Firm must determine the amount to be deducted for indirect holdings in the Trading Book of own AT1 Capital instruments that take the form of holdings of index Securities by calculating the underlying Exposure to own AT1 Capital instruments in the indices; and
              (c) an Authorised Firm must net gross long positions in own AT1 Capital instruments in the Trading Book resulting from holdings of index Securities may be netted by the Authorised Firm against short positions in own AT1 instruments resulting from short positions in the underlying indices, including where those short positions involve Counterparty Credit Risk.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Deductions Relating to AT1 Capital Instruments in Relevant Entities

            • PIB 3.14.6

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.14.4(b), (c) and (d), the amount of holdings of AT1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities to be deducted, must be calculated, subject to PIB 3.14.7, on the basis of the gross long positions.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.14.7

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.14.4(c) and (d), an Authorised Firm must make the deductions in accordance with the following:

              (a) the holdings in the Trading Book of the capital instruments of Relevant Entities must be calculated on the basis of the net long position in the same underlying Exposure provided the maturity of the short position matches the maturity of the long position or has a residual maturity of at least one year; and
              (b) the amount to be deducted for indirect holdings in the Trading Book of the capital instruments of Relevant Entities that take the form of holdings of index Securities must be determined by calculating the underlying Exposure to the capital instruments of the Relevant Entities in the indices.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • AT1 Deductions Relating to Significant Investment in a Relevant Entity

            • PIB 3.14.8

              (1) For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.14.4(c), an Authorised Firm must calculate the applicable amount to be deducted by multiplying the amount referred to in (a) by the factor derived from the calculation referred to in (b):
              (a) the amount referred to in PIB Rule 3.13.16(1)(a);
              (b) the amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the AT1 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities divided by the aggregate amount of all direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the CET1, AT1 and T2 Capital instruments of those Relevant Entities.
              (2) An Authorised Firm must exclude Underwriting positions held for 5 working days or fewer from the amount referred to in PIB Rule 3.13.16(1)(a) and from the calculation of the factor referred to in (1)(b).
              (3) An Authorised Firm must determine the portion of holdings of AT1 Capital instruments that is to be deducted pursuant to (1) by dividing the amount specified in (a) by the amount specified in (b):
              (a) the amount of holdings required to be deducted pursuant to (1)(a);
              (b) the aggregate amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of all the capital instruments of Relevant Entities in which the Authorised Firm does not have a significant investment.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.15 Tier 2 capital (T2 Capital)

          • PIB 3.15.1

            The T2 Capital constitutes the sum of T2 Capital elements in PIB Rule 3.15.2, subject to the deductions stipulated later in this section.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.15.2

            T2 Capital consists of the sum of the following elements:

            (a) capital instruments which meet the eligibility criteria laid down in PIB Rule 3.15.3 ; and
            (b) the share premium accounts related to the instruments referred to in (a).
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 3.15.3

            (1) For the purpose of PIB Rule 3.15.2(a), a capital instrument is eligible for inclusion in T2 Capital where all the following conditions are met:
            (a) the instruments are issued and fully paid-up;
            (b) the instruments are not purchased by any of the following:
            (i) the Authorised Firm or its Subsidiaries;
            (ii) an Undertaking in which the Authorised Firm has participation in the form of ownership, direct or by way of control, of 20% or more of the voting rights or capital of that Undertaking;
            (c) the purchase of the instruments is not funded directly or indirectly by the Authorised Firm ;
            (d) the claim on the principal amount of the instruments under the provisions governing the instruments is wholly subordinated to claims of all non-subordinated creditors;
            (e) the instruments are not secured, or guaranteed by any of the following:
            (i) the Authorised Firm or its Subsidiaries;
            (ii) any Parent of the Authorised Firm or their Subsidiaries;
            (iii) any member of the Financial Group to which the Authorised Firm belongs; or
            (iv) any Undertaking that has Close Links with entities referred to in (i) to (iii);
            (f) the instruments are not subject to any arrangement that otherwise enhances the seniority of the claim under the instruments;
            (g) the instruments have an Original Maturity of at least 5 years;
            (h) the provisions governing the instruments do not include any incentive for them to be redeemed by the Authorised Firm ;
            (i) where the instruments include one or more call options, the options are exercisable at the sole discretion of the Issuer;
            (j) the instruments may be called, redeemed or repurchased only where the Authorised Firm has notified the DFSA of its intention to call, redeem or repurchase the instruments in writing and well in advance, and not before 5 years after the date of issuance of the respective instruments;
            (k) the provisions governing the instruments do not indicate or suggest that the instruments would or might be redeemed or repurchased other than at maturity and the Authorised Firm does not otherwise provide such an indication or suggestion;
            (l) the provisions governing the instruments do not give the holder the right to accelerate the future scheduled payment of interest or principal, other than in the insolvency or liquidation of the Authorised Firm ;
            (m) the level of interest or dividend payments due on the instruments will not be modified based on the credit standing of the Authorised Firm , its Parent or any member of its Financial Group; and
            (n) where the instruments are not issued directly by the Authorised Firm or by an operating entity within its Financial Group, or by its Parent, the proceeds are immediately available without limitation in a form that satisfies the conditions laid down in this Rule to any of the following:
            (i) the Authorised Firm ;
            (ii) an operating entity within its Financial Group; or
            (iii) any Parent of the Authorised Firm .
            (2) The extent to which T2 Capital instruments can be considered as eligible for inclusion in T2 Capital during the final 5 years of maturity of those instruments is calculated by multiplying the result derived from the calculation in (a) by the amount referred to in (b):
            (a) the nominal amount of the instruments on the first day of the final 5 year period of their contractual maturity divided by the number of calendar days in that period;
            (b) the number of remaining calendar days of contractual maturity of the instruments.
            (3) The following must apply where, in the case of a T2 Capital instrument, the conditions laid down in this Rule cease to be met:
            (a) that instrument must cease to qualify as a T2 Capital instrument; and
            (b) the part of the share premium accounts that relates to that instrument must cease to qualify as a T2 Capital element.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • T2 Regulatory Deductions and Exclusions

            • PIB 3.15.4

              Subject to the following Rules in this section, an Authorised Firm must deduct the following from the calculation of its T2 Capital:

              (a) direct and indirect holdings by an Authorised Firm of own T2 Capital instruments, including own T2 instruments that an Authorised Firm could be obliged to purchase as a result of existing contractual obligations;
              (b) holdings of the T2 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where those entities have a reciprocal cross holding with the Authorised Firm which have the effect of artificially inflating the Capital Resources of the Authorised Firm ;
              (c) the amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the T2 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where the Authorised Firm does not have a significant investment in those entities; and
              (d) direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the T2 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities where the Authorised Firm has a significant investment in those entities, excluding Underwriting positions held for fewer than 5 working days.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Deductions Relating to Holdings of Own T2 Capital Instruments

            • PIB 3.15.5

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.15.4(a), an Authorised Firm must calculate holdings of its own T2 Capital instruments on the basis of the gross long positions subject to the following exceptions:

              (a) an Authorised Firm may calculate the amount of holdings in the Trading Book on the basis of the net long position provided the long and short positions are in the same underlying Exposure and the short positions involve no Counterparty Risk;
              (b) an Authorised Firm must determine the amount to be deducted for indirect holdings in the Trading Book of own T2 Capital instruments that take the form of holdings of index Securities by calculating the underlying Exposure to own T2 Capital instruments in the indices; and
              (c) an Authorised Firm may net gross long positions in own T2 Capital instruments in the Trading Book resulting from holdings of index Securities against short positions in own T2 instruments resulting from short positions in the underlying indices, including where those short positions involve Counterparty Risk.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Deductions Relating to T2 Capital Instruments in Relevant Entities

            • PIB 3.15.6

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.15.4(b), (c) and (d), the amount of holdings of T2 Capital instruments and other capital instruments of Relevant Entities to be deducted, must be calculated, subject to 3.15.7, on the basis of the gross long positions.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.15.7

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.15.4(c) and (d), an Authorised Firm must make the deductions in accordance with the following:

              (a) the holdings in the Trading Book of the capital instruments of Relevant Entities must be calculated on the basis of the net long position in the same underlying Exposure provided the maturity of the short position matches the maturity of the long position or has a residual maturity of at least one year; and
              (b) the amount to be deducted for indirect holdings in the Trading Book of the capital instruments of Relevant Entities that take the form of holdings of index Securities must be determined by calculating the underlying Exposure to the capital instruments of the Relevant Entities in the indices.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • T2 Deductions Relating to Insignificant Investment in a Relevant Entity

            • PIB 3.15.8

              (1) For the purposes of PIB Rule 3.15.4(c), an Authorised Firm must calculate the applicable amount to be deducted by multiplying the amount referred to in (a) by the factor derived from the calculation referred to in (b):
              (a) the amount referred to in PIB Rule 3.13.16(1)(a);
              (b) the amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the T2 Capital instruments of Relevant Entities divided by the aggregate amount of all direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the CET1, AT1 and T2 Capital instruments of those Relevant Entities.
              (2) An Authorised Firm must exclude Underwriting positions held for 5 working days or fewer from the amount referred to in PIB Rule 3.13.16(1)(a) and from the calculation of the factor referred to in (1)(b).
              (3) An Authorised Firm must determine the portion of holdings of T2 Capital instruments that is to be deducted by dividing the amount specified in (a) by the amount specified in (b):
              (a) the amount of holdings required to be deducted pursuant to (1)(a);
              (b) the aggregate amount of direct and indirect holdings by the Authorised Firm of the capital instruments of Relevant Entities in which the Authorised Firm does not have a significant investment.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Exclusion in Relation to Managing a PSIA

            • PIB 3.15.9

              An Authorised Firm must exclude from T2 Capital any amount by which the total of the Profit Equalisation Reserve and the Investment Risk Reserve exceeds the Displaced Commercial Risk Capital Requirement calculated in accordance with IFR Rule 5.4.4.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.16 Minority Interests and Instruments Issued by Subsidiaries

          • Minority Interests that Qualify for Inclusion in Consolidated CET1 Capital

            • PIB 3.16.1

              Minority interests must include the CET1 Capital instruments, plus the related retained earnings and share premium accounts, of a Subsidiary only where all of the following conditions are met:

              (a) the Subsidiary is one of the following:
              (i) an Authorised Firm; or
              (ii) a regulated entity,
              (b) the Subsidiary is a member of the Financial Group and included in the scope of consolidated supervision in accordance with PIB chapter 8; and
              (c) those CET1 Capital instruments are owned by persons other than the Undertakings included in the Financial Group.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.16.2

              Minority interests that are funded directly or indirectly, through a special purpose entity or otherwise, by the Parent of the Authorised Firm or any member of its Financial Group must not qualify for inclusion in the consolidated CET1 Capital of the Financial Group.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 3.16.3

              An Authorised Firm must determine the amount of minority interests of a Subsidiary that is eligible for inclusion in its consolidated CET1 Capital by subtracting from the minority interests of that Subsidiary the result of multiplying the amount referred to in (a) by the percentage referred to in (b):

              (a) the CET1 Capital of the Subsidiary minus the lesser of the following:
              (i) the amount of CET1 Capital of that Subsidiary required to meet the sum of the Subsidiary's CET1 Capital requirement (on a solo basis) of 60% of the Risk Capital Requirement and its Capital Conservation Buffer requirement of 25% of the Risk Capital Requirement; or
              (ii) the amount of consolidated CET1 Capital that relates to that Subsidiary that is required on a consolidated basis to meet the sum of its Financial Group's CET1 Capital requirement of 60% of the Risk Capital Requirement and its Capital Conservation Buffer requirement of 25% of the Risk Capital Requirement;
              (b) the minority interests of the Subsidiary expressed as a percentage of all CET1 Capital instruments of that Undertaking plus the related retained earnings and share premium accounts.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Qualifying AT1, T1, T2 Capital and Qualifying Own Funds

            • PIB 3.16.4

              Qualifying AT1, T1, T2 Capital and qualifying Capital Resources must include the minority interest, AT1, T1 or T2 Capital instruments, as applicable, plus the related retained earnings and share premium accounts, of a Subsidiary, only where the following conditions are met:

              (a) the Subsidiary is one of the following:
              (i) an Authorised Firm; or
              (ii) a regulated entity,
              (b) the Subsidiary is a member of the Financial Group and included in the scope of consolidated supervision in accordance with PIB chapter 8; and
              (c) those instruments are owned by persons other than the Undertakings included in the Financial Group.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Qualifying AT1 and T2 Capital Issued by a Special Purpose Entity

            • PIB 3.16.5

              AT1 and T2 Capital instruments issued by an SPE, and the related retained earnings and share premium accounts, are included in qualifying AT1 or T2 Capital or qualifying Capital Resources, as applicable, only where the following conditions are met:

              (a) the SPE issuing those instruments is included fully in the Financial Group to which the Authorised Firm belongs;
              (b) the instruments, and the related retained earnings and share premium accounts, are included in qualifying AT1 Capital only where the conditions laid down in PIB Rule 3.14.3(1) are satisfied;
              (c) the instruments, and the related retained earnings and share premium accounts, are included in qualifying T2 Capital only where the conditions laid down in PIB Rule 3.15.3(1) are satisfied; and
              (d) the only asset of the SPE is its investment in the Capital Resources of any of its Parents or their Subsidiaries, which are included fully in the Financial Group to which the Authorised Firm belongs, the form of which satisfies the relevant conditions laid down in PIB Rule 3.14.3(1) or PIB Rule 3.15.3(1), as applicable.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 3.16.5 Guidance

                If the DFSA considers the assets of a special purpose entity to be minimal and insignificant for such an entity, the DFSA may consider waiving the condition specified in PIB Rule 3.16.5(d).

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Qualifying T1 Capital Instruments Included in Consolidated T1 Capital

            • PIB 3.16.6

              An Authorised Firm must determine the amount of qualifying T1 Capital of a Subsidiary that is included in consolidated T1 Capital of the Authorised Firm's Financial Group by subtracting from the qualifying T1 Capital of that Subsidiary the result of multiplying the amount referred to in (a) by the percentage referred to in (b):

              (a) the lesser of the following:
              (i) the amount of T1 Capital of that Subsidiary required to meet the sum of the subsidiary's T1 Capital requirement (on a solo basis) of 80% of the Risk Capital Requirement and its Capital Conservation Buffer requirement of 25% of the Risk Capital Requirement; or
              (ii) the amount of consolidated T1 Capital that relates to the Subsidiary that is required on a consolidated basis to meet the sum of its Financial Group's T1 Capital requirement of 80% of the Risk Capital Requirement and its Capital Conservation Buffer requirement of 25% of the Risk Capital Requirement;
              (b) the qualifying T1 Capital of the Subsidiary expressed as a percentage of all T1 Capital instruments of that Subsidiary plus the related retained earnings and share premium accounts.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Qualifying T1 Capital Included in Consolidated AT1 Capital

            • PIB 3.16.7

              An Authorised Firm must determine the amount of qualifying T1 Capital of a Subsidiary that is included in consolidated AT1 Capital by subtracting from the qualifying T1 Capital of that Subsidiary included in consolidated T1 Capital, the minority interests of that Subsidiary that are included in consolidated CET1 Capital.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Qualifying Capital Resources Included in Consolidated Capital Resources

            • PIB 3.16.8

              An Authorised Firm must determine the amount of qualifying Capital Resources of a Subsidiary that is included in consolidated Capital Resources of its Financial Group by subtracting from the qualifying Capital Resources of that Subsidiary, the result of multiplying the amount referred to in (a) by the percentage referred to in (b):

              (a) the lesser of the following:
              (i) the amount of Capital Resources of the Subsidiary required to meet the sum of the Subsidiary's total Capital Requirement (on a solo basis) of 100% of the Risk Capital Requirement and its Capital Conservation Buffer requirement of 25% of the Risk Capital Requirement; or
              (ii) the amount of Capital Resources that relates to the Subsidiary that is required on a consolidated basis to meet the sum of its Financial Group's total Capital Requirement of 100% of the Risk Capital Requirement and its Capital Conservation Buffer requirement of 25% of the Risk Capital Requirement;
              (b) the qualifying Capital Resources of the Subsidiary, expressed as a percentage of all Capital Resources instruments of the Subsidiary that are included in its CET1, AT1 and T2 Capital items and the related retained earnings and share premium accounts.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Qualifying Capital Resources Instruments Included in Consolidated T2 Capital

            • PIB 3.16.9

              An Authorised Firm must determine the amount of qualifying Capital Resources of a Subsidiary that is included in consolidated T2 Capital by subtracting from the qualifying Capital Resources of that Subsidiary that are included in consolidated Capital Resources, the qualifying T1 Capital of that subsidiary that is included in consolidated T1 Capital of the Financial Group of the Authorised Firm.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 3.17 Qualifying Holdings Outside the Financial Sector

          • PIB 3.17.1

            (1) Where an Authorised Firm has a Qualifying Holding in an Undertaking which is not one of the following:
            (a) an Undertaking that is a Relevant Entity; or
            (b) an Undertaking that carries on activities that are:
            (i) a direct extension of banking;
            (ii) ancillary to banking, or
            (iii) leasing, factoring, the management of unit trusts, the management of data processing services or any other similar activity;
            and the amount of the holding exceeds 15% of the eligible total Capital Resources of the Authorised Firm, the Authorised Firm must comply with the requirements in (3).
            (2) The total amount of the Qualifying Holdings of an Authorised Firm in Undertakings other than those referred to in (1) that exceeds 60% of its Capital Resources are subject to the requirements in (3).
            (3) An Authorised Firm must apply the following requirements to Qualifying Holdings referred to in (1) and (2):
            (a) a risk weight of 1000% to the following:
            (i) the amount of Qualifying Holdings referred to in (1) in excess of 15% of Capital Resources; and
            (ii) the total amount of Qualifying Holdings referred to in (2) in excess of 60% of the Capital Resources of the Authorised Firm; and
            (b) must not count Qualifying Holdings referred to in (1) and (2) where the amount of those holdings exceeds the percentages of Capital Resources laid down in (1) and (2).
            (4) As an alternative to applying a 1000% risk weight to the amounts in excess of the limits specified in (1) or (2), an Authorised Firm may deduct those amounts from CET1 Capital.
            (5) Shares of Undertakings to which (1) or (2) do not apply must not be included in calculating the eligible capital limits specified in (1) where any of the following conditions are met:
            (a) those shares are held temporarily during a financial reconstruction or rescue operation,
            (b) the holding of the shares is an underwriting position held for 5 working days or less; or
            (c) those shares are held in the name of the Authorised Firm on behalf of others.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        PIB 3 Part 5">
      • PIB 3 Part 5 — Calculating the Leverage Ratio

        • PIB 3.18">
        • PIB 3.18 Leverage Ratios

          • PIB 3.18.1">
          • PIB 3.18.1

            This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5.

            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 3.18.1 Guidance

              This section is relevant to an Authorised Firm that is required to report its Leverage Ratio to the DFSA under PIB chapter 2, or to disclose its Leverage Ratio under PIB chapter 11, of these Rules.

              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

          • PIB 3.18.2

            An Authorised Firm must calculate its Leverage Ratio in accordance with the following formula:

            Leverage Ratio = Capital Measure ÷ Exposure Measure

            where:

            (a) "Capital Measure" represents Tier 1 Capital of the Authorised Firm calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 3.12.1; and
            (b) "Exposure Measure" represents the value of exposures of the Authorised Firm calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 3.18.3.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            PIB 3.18.3">
          • PIB 3.18.3

            For the purpose of determining the Exposure Measure, the value of exposures of an Authorised Firm must be calculated in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) subject to the following adjustments:

            (a) on-balance sheet, non-derivative exposures must be net of specific allowances and valuation adjustments (e.g. credit valuation adjustments);
            (b) physical or financial collateral, guarantees or credit risk mitigation purchased must not be used to reduce on-balance sheet exposures; and
            (c) loans must not be netted with deposits.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 3.18.3 Guidance

              1. The following Guidance is intended to illustrate how an Authorised Firm should calculate its Leverage Ratio under this section.
              2. The Exposure Measure under PIB Rule 3.18.3 should be calculated as the sum of:
              a. on-balance sheet items; and
              b. off-balance sheet items.
              3. In relation to on-balance sheet items:
              a. for SFTs, the exposure value should be calculated in accordance with IFRS and the netting requirements referred to in PIB Rule 4.9.14;
              b. for Derivatives, including credit protection sold, the exposure value should be calculated as the sum of the on-balance sheet value in accordance with IFRS and an add-on for potential future exposure calculated in accordance with Rules PIB A4.6.14 to PIB A4.6.21 of App 4; and
              c. for other on-balance sheet items, the exposure value should be calculated based on their balance sheet values in accordance with PIB Rule 4.9.3.
              4. In relation to off-balance sheet items:
              a. for commitments that are unconditionally cancellable at any time by the Authorised Firm without prior notice, the exposure value should be the notional amount for the item multiplied by a CCF of 10%; and
              b. for other off-balance sheet items, including:
              i. direct credit substitutes;
              ii. certain transaction-related contingent items;
              iii. short-term self-liquidating trade-related contingent items and commitments to underwrite debt and equity securities;
              iv. note issuance facilities and revolving underwriting facilities;
              v. transactions, other than SFTs, involving the posting of securities held by the Authorised Firm as collateral;
              vi. asset sales with recourse, where the credit risk remains with the Authorised Firm;
              vii. other commitments with certain drawdown;
              viii. any other commitments; and
              ix. unsettled transactions,
              the exposure value should be the notional amount for each of the items multiplied by a CCF of 100%.
              5. For an Islamic Financial Institution, assets corresponding to Unrestricted PSIAs will fall within the Exposure Measure and, therefore, are considered for the purpose of the Leverage Ratio calculation.
              6. Further Guidance about the method for completing forms relating to Leverage Ratios can be found in PRU.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

    • PIB 4 Credit Risk

      • Introduction

        • PIB 4 Guidance

          1. PIB chapter 4 deals with the prudential requirements relating to the management of Credit Risk by an Authorised Firm. Credit Risk refers to risk of incurring losses due to failure on the part of a borrower or a counterparty to fulfil their obligations in respect of a financial transaction.
          2. This chapter aims to ensure that an Authorised Firm holds sufficient regulatory capital of acceptable quality so that it can absorb unexpected losses arising out of its Credit Risk exposures, should the need arise and that it continues to operate in a sustainable manner.
          3. This chapter requires an Authorised Firm to:
          a. appropriately apply a risk-weight to all on-balance sheet assets and off-balance sheet exposures for capital adequacy purposes. A risk-weight is based on a Credit Quality Grade aligned with the likelihood of counterparty default;
          b. calculate the Credit Risk Capital Requirement for its on-balance sheet assets and off-balance sheet exposures; and
          c. reduce the Credit Risk Capital Requirement for its on-balance sheet assets and off-balance sheet exposures where the exposure is covered fully or partly by some form of eligible Credit Risk mitigant.
          4. PIB Appendix 4 provides detailed requirements, parameters, calculation methodologies and formulae in respect of the primary requirements outlined in PIB chapter 4.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 4 Part 1 — Application

        • PIB 4.1 Application

          • PIB 4.1.1

            This chapter applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.1.1 Guidance

              1. This chapter imposes systems and controls pertaining to Credit Risk, and prescribes the manner of calculation of the Credit Risk Capital Requirement (also referred to in this module as CRCOM).
              2. Rules PIB 3.8.2 and PIB 3.8.3 provide that the CRCOM is a component in the calculation of the overall Risk Capital Requirement of an Authorised Firm, and that the CRCOM is to be calculated in accordance with this PIB chapter 4.
              3. The Rules in PIB section 4.8 provide that the Authorised Firm's CRCOM is 8% of the Credit RWA of the firm, which in turn is calculated as the sum of:
              a. the RWA for Credit Risk Exposures (CR Exposures); and
              b. the RWA for securitisation Exposures (SE Exposures).
              4. This chapter sets out the manner in which each of those components must be calculated, monitored and controlled by an Authorised Firm.
              5. In addition to complying with the applicable Rules in this chapter, an Authorised Firm investing in or holding Islamic Contracts whether or not for the purpose of a PSIA will need to take account of the provisions under IFR Rules IFR 5.4.6 and IFR 5.4.7 to calculate the Credit Risk for those Islamic Contracts.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 4 Part 2 — Credit Risk Systems and Controls

        • PIB 4.2 Application of this part

          • PIB 4.2.1

            This part applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5 with respect to both its Non-Trading Book and Trading Book transactions.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.3 Credit Risk Management Systems

          • PIB 4.3.1

            An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain comprehensive Credit Risk management systems which:

            (a) are appropriate to the firm's type, scope, complexity and scale of operations;
            (b) enable the firm to effectively identify, assess, monitor and control Credit Risk and to ensure that adequate Capital Resources are available to cover the risks assumed; and
            (c) ensure effective implementation of the Credit Risk strategy and policy.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.3.1 Guidance

              1. Credit Risk is the risk that a borrower or Counterparty fails to meet its obligations. It exists in both the Non-Trading Book and the Trading Book, and both on and off the balance sheet of an Authorised Firm.
              2. Obviously, Credit Risk arises from loans but there are other sources of Credit Risk such as.
              a. trade finance and acceptances;
              b. interbank transactions;
              c. commitments and guarantees;
              d. interest rate, foreign exchange and Credit Derivatives (including swaps, options, forward rate agreements and financial futures);
              e. bond and equity holdings; and
              f. settlement of transactions.
              3. The objective of the Credit Risk management system must be to ensure that every Authorised Firm holds adequate capital to cover Credit Risk and absorb any potential losses arising from that risk. Since Authorised Firms need to provide credit as part of their usual business, this needs to be achieved by effectively managing the Credit Risk assumed by the Authorised Firm as part of its credit business.
              4. Failure to manage Credit Risk effectively could cause an Authorised Firm to face a situation of inadequate capital, which would threaten its safety and soundness. Such problems normally arise from:
              a. lax credit standards for borrowers and Counterparties;
              b. poor portfolio risk management; and
              c. failure to identify in good time changes in economic or other conditions that may impair the financial strength of borrowers and Counterparties.
              5. Therefore, it is essential for Authorised Firms involved in the business of providing credit to design, implement and maintain comprehensive and effective systems to manage Credit Risk.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.3.2

            The Credit Risk management framework of an Authorised Firm must have at least the following principal elements effectively implemented to ensure that the Credit Risk Exposures of the Authorised Firm are of a sufficiently good quality:

            (a) an appropriate Credit Risk environment, defined by a documented Credit Risk strategy and a documented Credit Risk policy;
            (b) application of the Credit Risk strategy and policy, where appropriate, on a consolidated basis and at the level of individual subsidiaries;
            (c) sound processes for assuming and managing Credit Risk;
            (d) prudent lending controls and limits, including policies and processes for monitoring Exposures in relation to limits, and approvals of exceptions to limits;
            (e) adequate appropriately skilled human resources to manage the Credit Risk function;
            (f) independence of credit approval and review functions from credit initiation functions to avoid any real or potential conflicts of interest;
            (g) prudent procedures for approving credits, defined by a documented credit procedures manual;
            (h) effective systems for credit administration, measurement and monitoring; and
            (i) adequate controls over Credit Risk.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.3.3

            (1) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its Governing Body retains responsibility for the Credit Risk management framework and ensure it is appropriate for the nature, scale and complexity of operations, in the context of prevailing market and macro-economic conditions.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its senior management or an appropriate designated body, regularly reviews and understands the implications as well as the limitations of the risk management information that they receive from the Credit Risk management function, in order to evaluate the suitability and effectiveness of such information in enabling them to provide effective oversight over the Credit Risk management function.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its Governing Body regularly reviews and understands the implications as well as the limitations of Credit Risk management information and reports presented to it, to ensure that the contents and the format of such reports are suitable for effective Governing Body oversight.
            (4) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its Governing Body is responsible for carrying out regular stress testing on the credit portfolio which is appropriate for the nature, scale and complexity of the Credit Risks assumed by the Authorised Firm. An Authorised Firm must ensure that its Governing Body annually reviews the stress scenarios and takes action to address any perceived issues arising from those reviews.
            (5) An Authorised Firm must establish and enforce internal controls and practices so that deviations from policies, procedures, limits and prudential guidelines are promptly reported to the appropriate level of management.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.3.3 Guidance

              1. An Authorised Firm may structure its credit processes and Credit Risk management function in a manner which suits its or its Group's internal organisational structure, culture and internal practices, provided the key functions and components relevant to Credit Risk management, as mentioned above, are present, and there must be adequate segregation of functions responsible for critical Credit Risk management processes. In particular, the credit initiation function must be independent of the credit approval and review functions to avoid any potential conflicts of interest. In cases where an Authorised Firm finds it necessary to delegate small lending limits to staff in the front office for operational needs, there must be adequate safeguards, e.g. independent review of credits granted, to prevent abuse.
              2. An Authorised Firm's senior management or an appropriately delegated body (such as a credit committee) should be responsible for effectively implementing the Credit Risk strategy and policy approved by the Governing Body of the Authorised Firm. Senior management or such a credit committee will need to establish adequate procedures to identify, quantify, monitor and control the Credit Risk inherent in the Authorised Firm's activities and at the level of both the overall portfolio and individual borrowers/Counterparties.
              3. The appropriate level at which credit decisions are taken will vary according to the type of credit offered and the size and structure of the Authorised Firm. For some Authorised Firms, a credit committee may be appropriate, with formal terms of reference laid down. In other Authorised Firms, individuals may be given pre-assigned authority limits. It will usually be appropriate for the final credit approval authority to be given by staff reporting independently from those staff interacting with clients.
              4. As part of its stress testing programme for Credit Risk measurement, an Authorised Firm should take into account the realistic recoveries available from security or Collateral under stressed market and macro-economic conditions.
              5. PIB Rule 4.3.3 (3) requires the Governing Body of an Authorised Firm to review the management information reports presented to it by the senior management of that firm and assess the reports in respect of their utility and effectiveness in enabling the Governing Body to effectively discharge their responsibilities towards effective oversight of the firm and its credit risk management.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.3.4

            An Authorised Firm must also consider whether it is prudent to set out specific provisioning requirements for country and transfer risks to which it is exposed.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.3.4 Guidance

              Guidance on country and transfer risk Exposure is set out in PIB section A4.1 (Credit Risk systems and controls) in PIB App4.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.3.5

            Where an Authorised Firm avails itself of Credit Risk mitigations, the Authorised Firm must have mechanisms in place to regularly assess the net realisable value of such mitigations taking into account prevailing market conditions.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.3.5 Guidance

              1. PIB section 4.13 sets out the principles and methodologies for the recognition of Credit Risk mitigation in the calculation of Credit RWA.
              2. Further Guidance on Credit Risk systems and controls (including Credit Risk mitigation), and on the specific areas which the Credit Risk policy should cover, is set out in PIB section A4.1.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.4 Credit Risk Strategy, Policy, and Procedures Manual

          • Credit Risk Strategy

            • PIB 4.4.1

              (1) An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain a Credit Risk strategy, which prescribes its stated degree of risk tolerance, level of capital available for credit activities, business strategy for credit activities and Credit Risk management approach.
              (2) The strategy must be:
              (a) documented;
              (b) approved by the Governing Body; and
              (c) regularly reviewed and updated by the Authorised Firm at periodic intervals and at least annually, as appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its activities.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.4.1 Guidance

                1. An Authorised Firm's Credit Risk strategy should reflect the aim to achieve sound credit quality while ensuring profit and business growth. Therefore the Credit Risk strategy should address the Authorised Firm's approach towards the decision on an acceptable level of risk/reward relationship, after taking into account resource and capital costs.
                2. An Authorised Firm's Credit Risk strategy should allow for economic cycles and their effects on the credit portfolio during different stages of an economic cycle. For example, it should cater for a higher incidence of defaults in the personal loan and credit card portfolios in times of economic recession.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Credit Risk Policy

            • PIB 4.4.2

              (1) An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain a Credit Risk policy which prescribes all the essential elements of the Credit Risk management system and associated processes.
              (2) The policy must be:
              (a) documented;
              (b) approved by the Governing Body; and
              (c) regularly reviewed and updated by the Authorised Firm at periodic intervals and at least annually, as appropriate to the firm's current financial performance, credit market conditions in its main markets and its Capital Resources position as well the firm's nature, scale and complexity of its activities.
              (3) Any changes to the Credit Risk policy and how exceptions to the policy will be dealt with must be approved by the Governing Body or an appropriately delegated committee of senior management (such as a credit committee).
              (4) An Authorised Firm with one or more branches outside the DIFC must implement and maintain Credit Risk policies adapted to each local market and its regulatory conditions.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.4.3

              The Credit Risk policy must:

              (a) be consistent with the approved Credit Risk strategy, considering a range of factors, including but not limited to an approved degree of risk tolerance, capital allocated to Credit Risks, business strategy and market conditions in its main credit markets;
              (b) provide sound, well-defined Credit Risk norms and criteria for approval of credit applications;
              (c) clearly specify the Exposure limits, product types, business segments, nature of target borrowers and the nature of Credit Risk that the Authorised Firm wishes to incur;
              (d) set out, where appropriate, the amounts and terms and conditions under which Counterparties or clients may be eligible or ineligible for credit;
              (e) include minimum information that is required to be obtained for processing an application for credit;
              (f) include well defined criteria and policies for approving new Exposures as well as renewing and refinancing existing Exposures, identifying the appropriate approval authority for the size and complexity of the Exposures;
              (g) include effective credit administration policies, including continued analysis of a borrower's ability and willingness to repay under the terms of the debt, monitoring of documentation, legal covenants, contractual requirements and Collateral, and a classification system that is consistent with the nature, size and complexity of the Authorised Firm's activities or, at the least, with the asset grading system prescribed in PIB Rule 4.5.4;
              (h) include comprehensive policies for reporting Exposures on an on-going basis;
              (i) include comprehensive policies for identifying and managing problem assets;
              (j) include a provisioning policy approved by the Governing Body which ensures that all loans are promptly and prudently provided for;
              (k) set out limits and approval processes involved for the approval of credit facilities that can be approved by the delegated authorities, and stipulate that the Governing Body retains responsibility for the governance of such limits;
              (l) require that major Credit Risk Exposures exceeding a specified amount or at a minimum all Large Exposures of the Authorised Firm are approved by the Authorised Firm's senior management or its designated body like credit committee; and
              (m) require that all Credit Risk Exposures that are especially risky or inconsistent with the approved credit strategy of the Authorised Firm are approved by the Authorised Firm's senior management or its designated body such as a credit committee.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.4.4

              In relation to conflicts of interest and Related Person transactions, the policy must:

              (a) set out adequate procedures for handling conflicts of interest relating to the provision and management of credit, including measures to prevent any Person directly or indirectly benefiting from the credit being part of the process of granting or managing the credit;
              (b) subject to PIB Rule 4.4.5, prohibit Exposures to Related Persons on terms that are more favourable than those available to Persons who are not Related Persons; and
              (c) if Exposures to Related Persons are allowed on terms which are no more favourable than those available to Persons who are not Related Persons, set out procedures that:
              (i) require such Exposures, and any write-off of such Exposures, exceeding specific amounts or otherwise posing special risks to the Authorised Firm, to be made subject to the prior written approval of the firm's Governing Body or the Governing Body's delegate; and
              (ii) exclude Persons directly or indirectly benefiting from the grant or write off of such Exposures being part of the approval process.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.4.5

              The prohibition in PIB Rule 4.4.4(b) does not apply to providing credit to a Related Person under a credit policy on terms (such as for credit assessment, tenor, interest rates, amortisation schedules and requirements for Collateral) that are more favourable than those on which it provides credit to Persons who are not Related Persons, provided the credit policy:

              (a) is an Employee credit policy that is widely available to Employees of the Authorised Firm;
              (b) is approved by the Authorised Firm's Governing Body or the Governing Body's delegate;
              (c) clearly sets out the terms, conditions and limits (both at individual and aggregate levels) on which credit is to be provided to such Employees; and
              (d) requires adequate mechanisms to ensure on-going compliance with the terms and conditions of that credit policy, including immediate reporting to the Governing Body or the Governing Body's delegate where there is a deviation from or a breach of the terms and conditions or procedures applicable to the provision of such credit for timely and appropriate action.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.4.5 Guidance

                1. The requirements in these Rules do not prevent arrangements such as Employee loan schemes that allow more favourable and flexible loan terms to Employees of the Authorised Firm than those available under its normal commercial arrangements. However, such a loan scheme must comply with the requirements set out in these Rules, which are designed to address conflicts of interest that may arise in the grant, approval or management of such loans. Such conflicts are especially likely to arise where one or more of the Employees concerned are Directors, Partners or senior managers.
                2. Generally, where an Authorised Firm has an Employee loan scheme under these Rules, the DFSA expects its Governing Body to have ensured, before it or its delegate approved that scheme, that the terms, conditions and particularly limits (both at individual and aggregate level) on which credit is to be provided to Employees under the scheme are adequate and effective in addressing the risks arising from such lending. The Authorised Firm should also be able to demonstrate to the DFSA that the procedures it has adopted relating to an Employee loan scheme are adequate to address any risks arising from such lending. The DFSA expects to have access to records relating to lending under an Employee loan scheme upon request or during its supervisory visits. Any significant breach of or deviation from the procedures adopted in relation to an Employee loan scheme may also trigger the reporting requirements to the DFSA under GEN Rule 11.10.7.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.4.6

              For the purposes of the Rules in this chapter, a Person is a "Related Person" of an Authorised Firm if the Person:

              (a) is, or was in the past 2 years:
              (i) a member of a Group or Partnership in which the Authorised Firm is or was also a member; or
              (ii) a Controller of the Authorised Firm or a Close Relative of such a Controller;
              (b) is, or was in the past 2 years, a Director, Partner or senior manager of the Authorised Firm or an entity referred to under (a)(i) or (ii), or a Close Relative of such a Director, Partner or senior manager; or
              (c) is an entity in which a Director, Partner or senior manager of the Authorised Firm or an entity referred to in (a)(i) or (a)(ii), or a Close Relative of such a Director, Partner or senior manager has a significant interest by:
              (i) holding 20% or more of the shares of that entity, or a Parent of that entity, if that entity is a company; or
              (ii) being entitled to exercise 20% or more of the voting rights in respect of that entity;
              except that a Partner is not a Related Person where that Person is a limited partner of a Limited Partnership formed under the Limited Partnership Law of 2006 or any similar limited partnership constituted under the law of a country or territory outside the DIFC.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Credit Procedures Manual

            • PIB 4.4.7

              An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain a documented credit procedures manual, which sets out the criteria and procedures for granting new credits, for approving extensions of existing credits and exceptions, for conducting periodic and independent reviews of credits granted and for maintaining the records for credits granted.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.4.8

              The credit procedures manual must establish:

              (a) sound, well-defined criteria for granting credit, including a thorough understanding of the borrower or Counterparty, the purpose and structure of the credit and its source of repayment;
              (b) well defined processes for approving new Exposures as well as renewing and refinancing existing Exposures;
              (c) effective credit administration processes, including continued analysis of a borrower's ability and willingness to repay under the terms of the debt, monitoring of documentation, legal covenants, contractual requirements and Collateral;
              (d) effective processes for classification and grading of credit assets consistent with the nature, size and complexity of the Authorised Firm's activities;
              (e) comprehensive processes for reporting Exposures on an ongoing basis; and
              (f) comprehensive processes for identifying problem assets, managing problem assets, monitoring their collections and for estimating required level of provisions.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.4.8 Guidance

                The same criteria should be applied to both advised and unadvised facilities and should deal with all Credit Risks associated with the Authorised Firm's business whether in the Non-Trading or Trading Book or on or off balance sheet.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.5 Processes for Credit Assessment

          • PIB 4.5.1

            (1) When utilising external credit rating agencies as part of its credit assessment processes, an Authorised Firm must:
            (a) maintain an internal credit grading system; and
            (b) stress test its capital position on at least an annual basis to consider the capital implications to the Authorised Firm of a significant reduction in the credit quality and associated reduction on credit ratings from credit rating agencies for its credit portfolio.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must not solely use external credit rating agency credit ratings as a basis for its assessment of the risks associated with an Exposure, in particular in respect of a Large Exposure, and must at all times conduct its own credit assessment of such an Exposure.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.5.1 Guidance

              An Authorised Firm should closely monitor the adequacy of the internal credit assessment processes, in order to assess whether there is an upward bias in internal ratings.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.5.2

            An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain appropriate policies, processes, systems and controls to:

            (a) administer its credit portfolios, including keeping the credit files current, getting up-to-date financial information on borrowers and other Counterparties, funds transfer, and electronic storage of important documents;
            (b) ensure that the valuations of Credit Risk mitigants employed by the Authorised Firm are up-to-date, including periodic assessment of Credit Risk mitigants such as guarantees and Collateral;
            (c) review all material concentrations in its credit portfolio and report the findings of such reviews to the Governing Body; and
            (d) measure Credit Risk (including to measure Credit Risk of off-balance sheet products such as Derivatives in credit equivalent terms) and monitor the condition of individual credits to facilitate identification of problem credits and to determine the adequacy of provisions and reserves.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.5.3

            The Credit Risk management system and, in particular, the systems, policies and processes aimed at classification of credits, monitoring and identification of problem credits, management of problem credits and provisioning for them must include all the on-balance sheet and off-balance sheet credit Exposures of the Authorised Firm.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.5.3 Guidance

              An Authorised Firm should ensure that its loan portfolio is properly classified and has an effective early-warning system for problem loans.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.5.4

            (1) An Authorised Firm must establish clearly defined criteria for identifying its problem credits and/or impaired assets which ensure that credits are classified as impaired in all cases where there is some reason to believe that all amounts due (including principal and interest) will, or may, not be collected in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan agreement.
            (2) For the purpose of (1), and subject to (3), an Authorised Firm must categorise its credits into five categories as detailed in the following table, where credits in the substandard, doubtful and loss categories must be considered as problem credits:
            Standard includes credits with no element of uncertainty about timely repayment of the outstanding amounts, including principal and interest. Credits are currently in regular payment status with prompt payments.
            Special mention includes credits with deteriorating or potentially deteriorating credit quality which, may adversely affect the borrower's ability to make scheduled payments on time. The credits in this category warrant close attention by the Authorised Firm.
            Substandard includes credits which exhibit definitive deterioration in credit quality and impaired debt servicing capacity of the borrower.
            Doubtful includes credits which show strong credit quality deterioration, worse than those in substandard category, to the extent that the prospect of full recovery of all the outstanding amounts from the credit is questionable and consequently the probability of a credit loss is high, though the exact amount of loss cannot be determined yet.
            Loss includes credits which are assessed as uncollectable and credits with very low potential for recoverability of amounts due.
            (3) An Authorised Firm may also have in place a more detailed credit grading system provided it can address the categories detailed in (2).
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.5.4 Guidance

              1. With respect to the ratings above, Authorised Firms should consider Exposures as classified special mention, substandard, doubtful and loss where the loans are contractually in arrears for a minimum number of days of 30, 60, 90-120 and 120-180 days respectively. Authorised Firms should also consider the treatments as set out in PIB Rule 4.5.7 (Evergreening).
              2. Credits exhibiting the following categories should be included in the special mention category.
              (a) a declining trend in the operations of the borrower or in the borrower's ability to continue to generate cash required for repayment of the credit;
              (b) any signals which indicate a potential weakness in the financial position of the borrower, but not to the point at which repayment capacity is definitely impaired; or
              (c) business, economic or market conditions that may unfavourably affect the profitability and business of the borrower in the near to medium term.
              3. Credits exhibiting the following categories should be included in the substandard category.
              (a) inability of the borrower to meet contractual repayment terms of the credit facility;
              (b) unfavourable economic and market conditions or operating problems that would affect the profitability and cash flow generation of the borrower;
              (c) weak financial condition or the inability of the borrower to generate sufficient cash flow to service the payments.;
              (d) difficulties experienced by the borrower in servicing its other debt obligations; or
              (e) breach of any financial covenants by the borrower.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.5.5

            An Authorised Firm must have detailed policies, processes and resources for managing problem credits which address the following:

            (a) monitoring of credits and early identification of credit quality deterioration;
            (b) review of classification of problem credits; and
            (c) ongoing oversight of problem credits, and for collecting on past due obligations.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.5.6

            An Authorised Firm must ensure that each and every credit which qualifies as a Large Exposure and is classified as an impaired credit is managed individually. This includes valuation, classification and provisioning for such credits on an individual item basis.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.5.7

            Any evergreening exercise involving refinancing of past due credits must not result in their being classified as a higher category. In particular, impaired credits cannot be refinanced with the aim of classifying them as standard or special mention credits.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.5.8

            An Authorised Firm's provisioning policy must specify the following minimum provisioning requirements:

            (a) for substandard assets — 20% of the unsecured portion of the credit;
            (b) for doubtful assets — 50% of the unsecured portion of the credit; and
            (c) for loss assets — 100% of the unsecured portion of the credit.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.5.9

            An Authorised Firm must, on a periodic basis, at a minimum monthly frequency, review its problem credits (at an individual level or at a portfolio level for credits with homogeneous characteristics) and review the asset classification, provisioning and write-offs for each of those problem credits.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 4 Part 3 — CRDOM

        • PIB 4.6 Application

          • PIB 4.6 Guidance

            1. As indicated in PIB Rule 4.1.1, this PIB chapter 4 (including this part 3) applies to Authorised Firms in Categories 1, 2, 3A and 5. However, the provisions in this part are applied in a differentiated manner in that Category 3A firms must, and Category 2 firms may, use the Simplified Approach under PIB section 4.7.
            2. The Credit Risk Capital Requirement (also referred to in this module as CRCOM) is a component of the calculation of the overall Capital Requirement of an Authorised Firm, as provided in Rules PIB 3.8.2 and PIB 3.8.3. The Rules in this PIB 4 part 3, supplemented by PIB App4, govern the manner of calculation of the CRCOM.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.7 Simplified Approach

          • Category 3A Firms

            • PIB 4.7.1

              (1) This Rule applies only to an Authorised Firm in Category 3A.
              (2) Subject to (3) and (4), an Authorised Firm must apply the Simplified Approach as prescribed in PIB section A4.12 in PIB App4.
              (3) An Authorised Firm is not required to apply the Simplified Approach if it obtains prior approval of the DFSA not to do so.
              (4) After obtaining approval under (3), a firm must not revert to the Simplified Approach without further prior approval from the DFSA.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.7.1 Guidance

                1. In effect, the Simplified Approach reduces undue regulatory burden on Category 3A firms to reflect more appropriately their risk profile.
                2. In relation to (3) and (4), the DFSA may consider granting its approval for a change of approach if it is satisfied that there are no regulatory capital arbitrage opportunities. Firms should be able to demonstrate to the DFSA solid and reasonable grounds to be able to move from one approach to the other. For instance, in assessing whether or not to grant approval, the DFSA may consider whether or not there has been a material change in the business of the firm.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Category 2 Firms

            • PIB 4.7.2

              (1) This Rule applies only to an Authorised Firm in Category 2.
              (2) Subject to (3) and (4), an Authorised Firm may apply the Simplified Approach, as prescribed in PIB section A4.12 in PIB App4, upon obtaining prior approval to do so from the DFSA.
              (3) After obtaining approval under (2), a firm must not disapply the Simplified Approach without further prior approval from the DFSA.
              (4) The DFSA may revoke its approval under (2) and require a firm to disapply the Simplified Approach, where the DFSA considers that this is warranted by the firm's business model and risk profile.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.7.2 Guidance

                In relation to (3) and (4), the DFSA may consider granting its approval for a change of approach if it is satisfied that there are no regulatory capital arbitrage opportunities. Firms should be able to demonstrate to the DFSA solid and reasonable grounds to be able to move from one approach to the other. For instance, in assessing whether or not to grant approval, the DFSA may consider whether or not there has been a material change in the business of the firm.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.8 Calculation of the Crcom

          • PIB 4.8.1

            (1) The Credit Risk Capital Requirement is calculated as follows:
            CRCOM = 8% x Credit RWA
            (2) The Credit RWA of an Authorised Firm is the sum of:
            (a) its risk weighted assets (RWA) for all its Credit Risk Exposures (referred to in this module as "CR Exposures") calculated in accordance with Rules PIB 4.8.2 and PIB 4.8.3;
            (b) its RWA for all its securitisation Exposures (referred to in this module as "SE Exposures") calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 4.8.4 and PIB section 4.14; and
            (c) its RWA for its Counterparty Risk Exposures as calculated in accordance with sections PIB A4.6 to PIB A4.8.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Calculation of RWA for Credit Risk Exposures (CR Exposures)

            • PIB 4.8.2

              An Authorised Firm must include in its calculation of RWA for CR Exposures:

              (a) any on-balance sheet asset; and
              (b) any off-balance sheet item;

              but excluding:

              (c) any SE Exposure;
              (d) any securitised Exposure that meets the requirements for the recognition of risk transference in a Traditional Securitisation set out in PIB section 4.14; or
              (e) any Exposure classified as a position or instrument in the Trading Book in accordance with PIB section A2.1.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.8.3

              To calculate its RWA for CR Exposures, an Authorised Firm must:

              (a) calculate the value of the Exposure (represented as "E") for every on-balance sheet and every off-balance sheet asset in accordance with the Exposure measurement methodology specified in PIB section 4.9 and recognising the effects of any applicable Credit Risk mitigation;
              (b) categorise that Exposure in accordance with the Rules in PIB section 4.10;
              (c) allocate an applicable Credit Quality Grade and risk weight for that Exposure in accordance with the Rules in section PIB 4.11 and PIB 4.12;
              (d) calculate the RWA amount for that Exposure using the following formula:
              RWA(CR) = E x CRW
              where:
              (i) "RWA(CR)" refers to the risk-weighted Exposure amount for that CR Exposure;
              (ii) "E" refers to the Exposure value or amount, for that CR Exposure; and
              (iii) "CRW" refers to the applicable risk weight for that CR Exposure determined in accordance with (b) and (c); and
              (e) add the RWA amounts calculated in accordance with (d) for all its CR Exposures.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Calculation of RWA for Securitisation Exposures (SE Exposures)

            • PIB 4.8.4

              To calculate its RWA for all its SE Exposures, an Authorised Firm must:

              (a) calculate the value of the Exposure for each of its SE Exposures in accordance with Exposure measurement methodology specified in PIB section 4.9 and recognising the effects of any applicable Credit Risk mitigation;
              (b) allocate an applicable Credit Quality Grade for that SE Exposure in accordance with the Rules in PIB section 4.11;
              (c) calculate the RWA amount for each SE Exposure, except for those SE Exposures which the Authorised Firm is required to include as deductions from any component of Capital Resources, using the following formula:
              RWA(SE) = SE x CRW
              where:
              (i) "RWA(SE)" refers to the risk-weighted Exposure amount for that securitisation Exposure;
              (ii) "SE" refers to the Exposure value or amount for that SE Exposure calculated in accordance with (a); and
              (iii) "CRW" refers to the applicable risk weight for that SE Exposure determined in accordance with (b); and
              (d) add the RWA amounts calculated in accordance with (c) for all its SE Exposures to the RWA amounts calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 4.8.5 in respect of its Early Amortisation Exposures.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.8.5

              To calculate its RWA for Early Amortisation Exposures, an Authorised Firm must:

              (a) calculate the value of the Exposure (EAE) for each of its Early Amortisation Exposures in accordance with Exposure measurement methodology specified in PIB section 4.9 and recognising the effects of any applicable Credit Risk mitigation;
              (b) calculate the risk-weighted Exposure amount for each Early Amortisation Exposure using the following formula:
              RWA(EAE) = EAE x CRW
              where:
              (i) "RWA(EAE)" refers to the risk-weighted Exposure amount for that Early Amortisation Exposure;
              (ii) "EAE" refers to the Exposure value or amount, for that Early Amortisation Exposure calculated in accordance with (a); and
              (iii) "CRW" refers to the applicable risk weight for the underlying Exposure type as if the Exposure had not been securitised; and
              (c) add the RWA amounts calculated in accordance with (b) for all its Early Amortisation Exposures.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.8.6

              The aggregate RWA amount for all of the SE Exposures of an Authorised Firm to a securitisation and Exposures arising from Credit Risk mitigation applied to those SE Exposures must not exceed the aggregate RWA amount corresponding to the underlying Exposures of the securitisation had they been on the balance sheet of the Authorised Firm and included in the calculation of the Credit RWA of the Authorised Firm. For avoidance of doubt, the aggregate RWA amount must not include any deduction for a gain-on-sale or a Credit-Enhancing Interest-Only Strip arising from the securitisation.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.9 Methodology for Measurement of Exposures

          • PIB 4.9.1

            An Authorised Firm must apply the Exposure measurement methodology set out in the Rules in this part to calculate the value or amount of an Exposure for any CR Exposure or SE Exposure.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.1 Guidance

              1. The measurement methodology in this section prescribes the manner of calculation of Exposures for the purpose of determining the Credit RWA for Credit Risk (CR) Exposures as provided in PIB Rule 4.8.3 and for securitisation (SE) Exposures as provided in PIB Rule 4.8.4.
              2. Due regard should be given to the Guidance relating to prudent valuation in PIB section 2.4 and related provisions in PIB A2.5.
              3. An Authorised Firm should consult with the DFSA on the appropriate treatment to apply in the measurement of E, for transactions that have not been addressed in this part.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.9.2

            An Authorised Firm must calculate E for any CR Exposure or SE Exposure, net of any individual impairment provision attributable to such Exposures, as determined in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Measurement of E for On-Balance Sheet Assets

            • PIB 4.9.3

              For each on-balance sheet asset, E should be the carrying value of the asset as determined in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.9.3 Guidance

                1. For any asset, E should be equal to the fair value of that asset presented in the balance sheet except that:
                a. for any asset held at cost, E, should be equal to the cost of the asset presented in the balance sheet; and
                b. for any available-for-sale (AFS) debt security or AFS loan, E, should be equal to the fair value less provision for impairment of that AFS debt security or AFS loan, adjusted by deducting any unrealised fair value gains and adding back any unrealised fair value losses on revaluation (broadly equivalent to the amortised cost of the AFS debt security or AFS loan less any provision for impairment).
                2. In the case of a lease where the Authorised Firm is exposed to residual value risk (i.e. potential loss due to the fair value of the leased asset declining below the estimate of its residual value reflected on the balance sheet of the Authorised Firm at lease inception), the Authorised Firm should calculate (i) an Exposure to the lessee equivalent to the discounted lease payment stream; and (ii) an Exposure to the residual value of the leased assets equivalent to the estimate of the residual value reflected in the balance sheet of the Authorised Firm.
                3. Any foreign exchange transaction or translation gain or loss from a foreign currency-denominated on-balance sheet item as well as interest earned on a fixed income instrument should be allocated to the Exposure to which it accrues.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Measurement of E for Off-Balance Sheet Items Other than Counterparty Risk Exposures

            • PIB 4.9.4

              (1) For each off-balance sheet item other than a pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure arising from an OTC Derivative transaction, long settlement transaction or securities financing transaction (referred to in PIB as an "SFT"), an Authorised Firm must calculate E by:
              (a) in the case of an Early Amortisation Exposure, multiplying the amount of investors' interest by the applicable CCF set out in Rules PIB A4.2.1 and PIB A4.2.2 in PIB App4; and
              (b) in all other cases, multiplying the notional amount of each item by:
              (i) the applicable CCF set out in PIB Rule A4.2.1 in PIB App4 if that item is a CR Exposure; or
              (ii) the applicable CCF set out in PIB Rule A4.2.2 in PIB App4 if that item is an SE Exposure.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.9.4 Guidance

                1. An Authorised Firm which is exposed to the risk of the underlying Securities in an OTC Derivative transaction, long settlement transaction or SFT which is in substance similar to a forward purchase or credit substitute should calculate E, for such an Exposure, in accordance with PIB Rule 4.9.4(1).
                2. Investors' interest is defined as the sum of:
                a. investors' drawn balances related to the securitised Exposures; and
                b. E associated with investors' undrawn balances related to the SE Exposures. E is determined by allocating the undrawn balances of securitised Exposures on a pro-rata basis based on the proportions of the Originator's and investor shares of the securitised drawn balances.
                3. For avoidance of doubt, where an Authorised Firm has provided unfunded credit protection via a total rate of return swap, E should be equal to the notional amount of the underlying reference credit for which the Authorised Firm is providing protection adjusted for any payments received from or made to the protection buyer and recognised in the profit and loss account of the Authorised Firm. Where an Authorised Firm has provided unfunded credit protection via a credit default swap, E should be equal to the notional amount of the underlying reference credit for which the Authorised Firm is providing protection.
                4. The notional amount of an off-balance sheet item refers to the amount which has been committed but is as yet undrawn. The amount to which the CCF is applied is the lower of the value of the unused committed credit line, and the value which reflects any possible constraining availability of the facility, such as the existence of a ceiling on the potential lending amount which is related to an obligor's reported cash flow. If the facility is constrained in this way, the Authorised Firm must have sufficient line monitoring and management procedures to support this contention.
                5. Any foreign exchange transaction or translation gain or loss from a foreign currency-denominated off-balance sheet item should be allocated to the Exposure to which it accrues.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Recognition of Eligible Financial Collateral for On-Balance Sheet Assets and Off-Balance Sheet Items Other Than Counterparty Exposures

            • PIB 4.9.5

              (1) An Authorised Firm which has taken eligible financial Collateral for any transaction other than an equity Exposure, an SE Exposure, an OTC Derivative transaction, long settlement transaction or SFT may recognise the effect of such Collateral in accordance with Rules PIB 4.9.6 and PIB 4.9.7.
              (2) An Authorised Firm must use either the:
              (a) Financial Collateral Simplified Approach (FCSA) which adopts the treatment under PIB Rule 4.13.5 in relation to the composition of financial Collateral; or
              (b) Financial Collateral Comprehensive Approach (FCCA) which adopts the treatment under PIB Rule 4.13.6;
              to recognise the effect of eligible financial Collateral.
              (3) An Authorised Firm must apply the chosen approach consistently to its entire Non-Trading Book and must not use a combination of both approaches.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.6

              An Authorised Firm using the FCSA may recognise the effect of eligible financial Collateral in accordance with the Rules in PIB section 4.13.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.7

              An Authorised Firm using the FCCA may calculate the CR Exposure adjusted for eligible financial Collateral (referred to in PIB as "E*"), in accordance with Rules in PIB section A4.3 of PIB App4 and substitute E* for E when calculating the Credit Risk-weighted Exposure amount for that CR Exposure under PIB section 4.8.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Recognition of Eligible Financial Collateral for Securitisation (SE) Exposures

            • PIB 4.9.8

              An Authorised Firm that has taken eligible financial Collateral for an SE Exposure may recognise the effect of such Collateral in accordance with Rules PIB 4.9.9 to PIB 4.9.11.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.9

              An Authorised Firm calculating RWAs for SE Exposures must use either the FCSA or the FCCA approaches to recognise the effect of eligible financial Collateral. An Authorised Firm must apply the chosen approach consistently to the entire Non-Trading Book and must not use a combination of both approaches.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.10

              An Authorised Firm using the FCSA approach for an SE Exposure may recognise the effect of eligible financial Collateral in accordance with PIB section 4.13 and PIB Rule 4.14.70.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.11

              An Authorised Firm using the FCCA approach for an SE Exposure must calculate E*, the SE Exposure adjusted for eligible financial Collateral, in accordance with Rules in PIB section A4.3 of PIB App4 and substitute E* for E when calculating the RWA for SE Exposure under PIB section 4.8.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Measurement of E for Counterparty Exposures

            • PIB 4.9.11 Guidance

              Rules PIB 4.19.12 to PIB 4.19.21 should be read in conjunction with sections PIB A4.6 to PIB A4.8.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Measurement of E for Counterparty Exposures Arising from OTC Derivative Transactions and Long Settlement Transactions

            • PIB 4.9.12

              For each OTC Derivative transaction or long settlement transaction which is not covered by a qualifying cross-product Netting agreement, an Authorised Firm should calculate E for the pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure arising from that OTC Derivative transaction or long settlement transaction using the method set out in sections PIB A4.6 to PIB A4.8.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Measurement of E for Pre-Settlement Counterparty Exposures Arising from SFTs

            • PIB 4.9.13

              An SFT must be treated as Collateralised lending, notwithstanding the wide range of structures which could be used for SFTs.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.14

              An Authorised Firm must calculate E, for a pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure arising from an SFT, other than an Exposure covered by a qualifying cross-product Netting agreement, in accordance with Rules PIB 4.9.15 to PIB 4.9.20.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.15

              An Authorised Firm must determine E, for a pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure arising from an SFT which is not covered by a qualifying cross-product Netting agreement as follows:

              (a) in the case where the Authorised Firm has lent Securities to a Counterparty or sold Securities to a Counterparty with a commitment to repurchase those Securities at a specified price on a specified future date, the latest fair value of the Securities lent or sold; and
              (b) in the case where the Authorised Firm has lent cash to a Counterparty through the borrowing of Securities from the Counterparty or paid cash for the purchase of Securities from a Counterparty with a commitment to resell those Securities at a specified price on a specified future date, the amount of cash lent or paid.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.16

              An Authorised Firm which has taken eligible financial Collateral for any SFT where the pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure is determined in accordance with PIB Rule 4.9.15 may recognise the effect of such Collateral in accordance with Rules PIB 4.9.17 to PIB 4.9.20.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.17

              An Authorised Firm must use either the FCSA or the FCCA to recognise the effect of eligible financial Collateral for any SFT in the Non-Trading Book. The Authorised Firm must apply the chosen approach consistently to the entire Non-Trading Book and must not use a combination of both approaches. For a pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure arising from any SFT in the Trading Book, an Authorised Firm must only use the FCCA to recognise the effect of eligible financial Collateral.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.18

              An Authorised Firm using the FCSA may recognise the effect of eligible financial Collateral for any SFT in accordance with Rules PIB A4.3.27 to PIB A4.3.29 in PIB App4.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.19

              An Authorised Firm which has taken eligible financial Collateral for any SFT that is not covered by a qualifying bilateral Netting agreement and using the FCCA, must calculate E* in accordance with Rules PIB A4.3.2 to PIB A4.3.6 in PIB App4, and substitute E* for E when calculating the Credit Risk-weighted Exposure amount for that CR Exposure under PIB section 4.8.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.9.20

              An Authorised Firm which has taken eligible financial Collateral for an SFT that is covered by a qualifying bilateral Netting agreement and using the FCCA, must calculate E* for all its CR Exposures to any single Counterparty covered by the qualifying bilateral Netting agreement, in accordance with Rules PIB A4.3.2 to PIB A4.3.6 in PIB App4 (if the Authorised Firm is using supervisory haircuts or own-estimate haircuts), and substitute E* for E when calculating the Credit Risk-weighted Exposure amount for its CR Exposures to that Counterparty under PIB section 4.8.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Exceptions to the Measurement of E

            • PIB 4.9.21

              An Authorised Firm may attribute a value of zero to E for:

              (a) any pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure arising from any Derivative transaction or SFT outstanding with a CCPe and which has not been rejected by that CCP, provided that the Exposure is fully Collateralised on a daily basis;
              (b) any Credit Risk Exposure arising from any Derivative transaction, SFT or spot transaction which an Authorised Firm has outstanding with a CCP for which the latter acts as a custodian on the Authorised Firm's behalf, provided that the Exposure is fully Collateralised on a daily basis;
              (c) any pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure arising from any Credit Derivative which an Authorised Firm may recognise as eligible credit protection for a Non-Trading Book Exposure or another CCR Exposure; and
              (d) any pre-settlement Counterparty Exposure arising from any sold credit default swap in the Non-Trading Book, where the credit default swap is treated as credit protection sold by the Authorised Firm.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.9.21 Guidance

                Credit Risk (CR) Exposures outstanding with a CCP would, for example, include credit Exposures arising from monies placed and from Collateral posted, with the Counterparty.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.10 Categorisation of Credit Risk Exposures (CR Exposures)

          • PIB 4.10 Guidance

            This section categorises Exposures for the purpose of determining the CRW for CR Exposures, as provided in PIB Rule 4.8.3.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.10.1

            An Authorised Firm must categorise any CR Exposure that is not past due for more than 90 days into one of the following asset classes:

            (a) cash items, which consist of:
            (i) cash and cash equivalents;
            (ii) gold bullion held in the vaults of the Authorised Firm or on an allocated basis in the vaults of another entity to the extent that it is backed by gold bullion liabilities; and
            (iii) all receivable funds arising from transactions that are settled on a DvP basis which are outstanding up to and including the 4th business day after the settlement date;
            (b) central government and Central Bank asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure to a central government or Central Bank;
            (c) the PSE asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure to a PSE;
            (d) the MDB asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure to an MDB;
            (e) bank asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure to a banking institution;
            (f) corporate asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure to any corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship or trustee in respect of a trust, other than Exposures categorised in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e), (g) and (h);
            (g) regulatory retail asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure meeting all of the following conditions:
            (i) the Exposure is to an individual, a group of individuals, or a small business;
            (ii) the Exposure takes the form of any of the following:
            (A) revolving credit and lines of credit, including credit cards and overdrafts;
            (B) personal term loans and leases, including instalment loans, vehicle loans and leases, student and educational loans;
            (C) small business credit facilities and commitments; or
            (D) any other product which the DFSA may specify from time to time;
            (iii) the Exposure is one of a sufficient number of Exposures with similar characteristics such that the risks associated with such lending are reduced; and
            (iv) the total Exposure to any obligor or group of obligors is not more than $2 million;
            (h) residential mortgage asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure meeting all of the following conditions:
            (i) the Exposure is to an individual or a group of individuals, or if the Exposure is to an entity other than an individual, the Authorised Firm can demonstrate to the DFSA (if required to do so) that it has robust processes to ascertain that the Exposure is structured to replicate the risk profile of an Exposure to an individual or a group of individuals and that it is able to identify and manage the legal risks that arise in such structures;
            (ii) the Exposure is secured against a first lien mortgage:
            (A) of a completed residential property; or
            (B) on an exceptional basis of an uncompleted residential property in a jurisdiction approved by the DFSA;
            (iii) the Exposure is not classified as an impaired asset in accordance with Rules in this module; and
            (iv) the Exposure is not to a corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship or trustee in respect of a trust where such corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship or trust is engaged in residential building, development or management;
            (i) the commercial real estate asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure meeting all of the following conditions:
            (i) the Exposure is to a corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship or trustee in respect of a trust; and
            (ii) the Exposure is secured by commercial real estate; or
            (j) other Exposures asset class, which consists of any CR Exposure which does not fall within any of the categories in sub-paragraphs (a) to (i).
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.10.1 Guidance

              The Exposures listed under item (f) include transactions settled on a payment-versus-payment basis. For avoidance of doubt, the DFSA expects that a CR Exposure to a securities firm should be categorised within the corporate asset class.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.11 Credit Quality Grade and External Credit Assessments

          • PIB 4.11 Guidance

            This section governs credit assessments of Exposures for the purpose of determining the CRW for Credit Risk (CR) Exposures as provided in PIB Rule 4.8.3 and for securitisation (SE) Exposures as provided in PIB Rule 4.8.4.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.1

            An Authorised Firm must assign a CR Exposure to a Credit Quality Grade based on the external credit assessment that is applicable to the CR Exposure in accordance with tables mapping the ratings from an ECAI to Credit Quality Grades, which will be published by the DFSA.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.2

            An Authorised Firm must only use an external credit assessment which is accessible to the public. An Authorised Firm may not use a credit assessment that is made available only to the parties to a transaction.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.3

            An Authorised Firm must only use external credit assessments by a recognised ECAI. The DFSA may impose conditions on the use of such external credit assessments.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.4

            An Authorised Firm must use its chosen recognised external credit rating agencies and their external credit assessments consistently for each type of Exposure, for both risk weighting and risk management purposes. Where an Authorised Firm has two external credit assessments which map into different Credit Quality Grades, it must assign the CR Exposure to the Credit Quality Grade associated with the higher risk weight. Where an Authorised Firm has three or more external credit assessments which map into two or more different Credit Quality Grades, it must assign the CR Exposure to the Credit Quality Grade associated with the higher of the two lowest risk weights.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.11.4 Guidance

              For illustration, if there are three external credit assessments mapping into Credit Quality Grades with risk weights of 0%, 20% and 50%, then the applicable risk weight is 20%. If the external credit assessments map into Credit Quality Grades with risk weights of 20%, 50% and 50%, then the applicable risk weight is 50%.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.5

            An Authorised Firm must not recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation if such mitigation is already reflected in the issue-specific external credit assessment of the CR Exposure.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.6

            Where a CR Exposure has an issue-specific external credit assessment from a recognised ECAI, an Authorised Firm must use such assessment. Where a CR Exposure does not have an issue-specific external credit assessment, an Authorised Firm must:

            (a) if there is an issue-specific external credit assessment for another Exposure to the same obligor, use the issue-specific assessment for the other Exposure only if the Exposure without an issue-specific assessment ranks pari passu with or is senior to the Exposure with the issue-specific assessment;
            (b) if the obligor has an Issuer external credit assessment, use the Issuer assessment of the obligor only if the Exposure without an issue-specific assessment ranks pari passu with or is senior to any unsecured claim that is not subordinated to any other claim on the obligor; or
            (c) in all other cases, apply a risk weight equal to the higher of the risk weight that is applicable to an unrated Exposure and the risk weight associated with the external credit assessment, if any, of the obligor or another Exposure to the same obligor.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.7

            Where a CR Exposure is risk-weighted in accordance with PIB Rule 4.11.6(a) or (b), an Authorised Firm may use a domestic currency external credit assessment only if the CR Exposure is denominated in that domestic currency.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.8

            An Authorised Firm may use an external credit assessment to risk weight a CR Exposure only if the external credit assessment has taken into account and reflects the entire amount of Credit Risk Exposure the Authorised Firm has with regard to all payments owed to it.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.11.9

            An Authorised Firm must not use unsolicited external credit assessments to assign any CR Exposure to a Credit Quality Grade, unless:

            (a) it has assessed the quality of the unsolicited external credit assessments that it intends to use and is satisfied that these are comparable in performance with solicited external credit assessments and maintains relevant records and documents to be made available to the DFSA upon request; and
            (b) it uses unsolicited external credit assessments consistently for each type of Exposures, for both risk weighting and risk management purposes.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.12 Risk Weights

          • PIB 4.12.1

            An Authorised Firm with a CR Exposure must:

            (a) for a CR Exposure that is not past due for more than 90 days, determine the applicable risk weight in accordance with Rules PIB 4.12.2 to PIB 4.12.23;
            (b) for a CR Exposure that is past due for more than 90 days, determine the applicable risk weight in accordance with Rules PIB 4.12.24 to PIB 4.12.26; and
            (c) for a CR Exposure arising from an Unsettled Transaction, determine the applicable risk weight in accordance with Rules PIB A4.6.5 to PIB A4.6.8.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.1 Guidance

              Where a CR Exposure which is not past due has a Credit Quality Grade which corresponds to a risk weight of 150%, an Authorised Firm may apply the appropriate treatment and risk weights set out in Rules PIB 4.12.24 to PIB 4.12.26.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Cash Items

            • PIB 4.12.2

              Subject to PIB Rule 4.12.3, an Authorised Firm may apply a 0% risk weight to any CR Exposure categorised as a cash item.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.3

              An Authorised Firm must apply a 20% risk weight to cheques, drafts and other items drawn on other banking institutions that are either payable immediately upon presentation or that are in the process of collection.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Central Government and Central Bank Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.4

              Subject to PIB Rule 4.12.5, an Authorised Firm must risk-weight any CR Exposure in the central government and Central Bank asset class in accordance with the table below.

              Risk weights for the central government and Central Bank asset class

              Credit Quality Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unrated
              Risk Weight 0% 20% 50% 100% 100% 150% 100%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.5

              An Authorised Firm may apply a 0% risk weight to any CR Exposure to central governments or central banks of a GCC member country which are denominated and funded in the domestic currency of the GCC member country. For the purposes of this Rule, individual Emirates of the UAE will be considered as though they were GCC member countries.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Public Sector Enterprises (PSE) Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.6

              (1) Subject to PIB Rule 4.12.8, an Authorised Firm must risk-weight any CR Exposure in the PSE asset class in accordance with the following table:

              Risk Weights for the PSE asset class
              Credit Quality Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unrated
              Risk Weight 20% 50% 100% 100% 100% 150% 100%
              (2) In (1), sovereign PSEs in the UAE and GCC that exhibit Credit Risks comparable to their central government must be treated in accordance with the requirements set out in PIB Rule 4.12.5.
              (3) For the purposes of this Rule, a sovereign PSE is a PSE which has been designated as such by its national authorities.
              (4) Any foreign currency claims on sovereign PSEs which are determined to meet the conditions of (2) must be treated as one grade less favourable than the risk weight allocated in accordance with Rules PIB 4.12.4 and PIB 4.12.5.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.12.6 Guidance

                Any PSE which exhibits risk characteristics of a commercial enterprise should be treated in accordance with Rules PIB 4.12.13 to PIB 4.12.15.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Multilateral Development Bank (MDB) Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.7

              Subject to Rules PIB 4.12.8 and PIB 4.12.9, an Authorised Firm must risk-weight any CR Exposure in the MDB asset class in accordance with the following table:

              Risk Weights for the MDB asset class

              Credit Quality Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unrated
              Risk Weight 0% 50% 50% 100% 100% 150% 50%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.8

              An Authorised Firm must apply a 0% risk weight to any CR Exposure to the qualifying MDBs set out below:

              (a) The World Bank Group comprised of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC);
              (b) The Asian Development Bank (ADB);
              (c) The African Development Bank (AfDB);
              (d) The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD);
              (e) The Inter-American Development Bank (IADB);
              (f) The European Investment Bank (EIB);
              (g) The European Investment Fund (EIF);
              (h) The Nordic Investment Bank (NIB);
              (i) The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB);
              (j) The Islamic Development Bank (IDB); and
              (k) The Council of Europe Development Bank (CEDB).
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.9

              An Authorised Firm must apply a 0% risk weight to any CR Exposure to the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, the European Central Bank, the European Commission, or the European Stability Mechanism.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM215/2018 (Made 22nd February 2018). [VER31/04-18]

          • Bank Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.10

              Subject to Rules PIB 4.12.11 and PIB 4.12.12, an Authorised Firm must risk-weight any CR Exposure in the bank asset class in accordance with the following table:

              CRWs for the bank asset class

              Credit Quality Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unrated
              Risk Weight 20% 50% 50% 100% 100% 150% 50%
              Risk Weight for Short-Term Exposures 20% 20% 20% 50% 50% 150% 20%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.12.10 Guidance

                For the purposes of the above table, short-term Exposures refer to Exposures with an Original Maturity of three months or less and that are not expected to be rolled over.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.11

              An Authorised Firm must risk-weight any short-term CR Exposure in the bank asset class with an issue-specific external credit assessment in accordance with the following table.

              CRWs for short-term CR Exposures in the bank asset class with issue-specific external credit assessments

              Short-Term Credit Quality Grade I II III IV
              Risk Weight 20% 50% 100% 150%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.12

              The CRW for any CR Exposure in the bank asset class that does not have an external credit assessment by a recognised external credit rating agency must be the risk weight determined in accordance with the table in PIB Rule 4.12.10 or the risk weight that is applicable to an CR Exposure to the central government of the jurisdiction in which the banking institution is incorporated or established, whichever is higher. If a short-term CR Exposure in the bank asset class with an issue-specific external credit assessment:

              (a) attracts a risk weight of 50% or 100%, then the Authorised Firm must apply a risk weight of not lower than 100% to any unrated short-term CR Exposure to the same banking institution; or
              (b) attracts a risk weight of 150%, then the Authorised Firm must apply a risk weight of 150% to any unrated CR Exposure (whether long-term or short-term) to the same banking institution.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Corporate Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.13

              Subject to Rules PIB 4.12.14 and PIB 4.12.15, an Authorised Firm must risk-weight any CR Exposure in the corporate asset class in accordance with the following table:

              Risk Weights for the corporate asset class

              Credit Quality Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unrated
              Risk Weight 20% 50% 100% 100% 150% 150% 100%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.14

              An Authorised Firm must risk-weight any short-term CR Exposure in the corporate asset class with an issue-specific external credit assessment in accordance with the following table:

              Risk Weights for short-term CR Exposures in the corporate asset class with issue-specific external credit assessments.

              Short-Term Credit Quality Grade I II III IV
              Risk Weight 20% 50% 100% 150%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.15

              The risk weight for any CR Exposure in the corporate asset class that does not have an external credit assessment by a recognised external credit rating agency must be the risk weight determined in accordance with the table under PIB Rule 4.12.13 or the risk weight that is applicable to an CR Exposure to the central government of the jurisdiction in which the corporate is incorporated or established, whichever is higher. If a short-term CR Exposure in the corporate asset class with an issue-specific external credit assessment:

              (a) attracts a risk weight of 50% or 100%, then the Authorised Firm must apply a risk weight of not lower than 100% to any unrated short-term CR Exposure to the same corporate; or
              (b) attracts a risk weight of 150%, then the Authorised Firm must apply a risk weight of 150% to any unrated CR Exposure (whether long-term or short-term) to the same corporate.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Regulatory Retail Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.16

              An Authorised Firm must apply a 100% risk weight to any CR Exposure in the regulatory retail asset class.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Residential Mortgage Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.17

              An Authorised Firm must risk weight any CR Exposure in the residential mortgage asset class in accordance with the following table:

              Risk weights for the residential mortgage asset class

              Condition Risk Weight
              Loans fully secured on residential property to a maximum loan to value of 80% 50%
              Loans secured on residential property in excess of a loan to value of 80% 100%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Commercial Real Estate Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.18

              An Authorised Firm must apply a 100% risk weight to any CR Exposure in the commercial real estate asset class.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.19

              An Authorised Firm must apply a risk weight of 150% to Exposures, including Exposures in the form of Shares or Units in a Collective Investment Fund, that are associated with particularly high risks.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.20

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 4.12.19, Exposures with particularly high risks must include the following investments:

              (a) investments in venture capital funds
              (b) investments in hedge funds or alternative investment funds, including but not limited to private equity funds;
              (c) speculative immovable property financing; and
              (d) any investments declared by the DFSA to constitute high risk for the purpose of this Rule.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.21

              When assessing whether an Exposure other than Exposures referred to in PIB Rule 4.12.20 is associated with particularly high risks, an Authorised Firm must take into account the following risk characteristics:

              (a) there is a high risk of loss as a result of a default of the obligor; and
              (b) it is impossible to assess adequately whether the Exposure falls under (a).
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Other Exposures Asset Class

            • PIB 4.12.22

              An Authorised Firm must apply a 100% risk weight to any CR Exposure in the other Exposures asset class.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.23

              Investments in equity or regulatory capital instruments issued by banks or securities firms must be risk weighted at 100%, unless deducted from the capital base.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Past Due Exposures

            • PIB 4.12.24

              Subject to Rules PIB 4.12.25 and PIB 4.12.26, an Authorised Firm must risk-weight the unsecured portion of any CR Exposure that is past due for more than 90 days in accordance with the following table.

              Risk weights for past due Exposures

              Condition Risk Weight
              Where specific provisions are less than 20% of the outstanding amount of the Exposure 150%
              Where specific provisions are no less than 20% of the outstanding amount of the Exposure 100%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.25

              For the purposes of PIB Rule 4.12.24, an Authorised Firm must calculate the unsecured portion of any CR Exposure that is past due for more than 90 days as follows:

              (a) for an Authorised Firm using the FCSA:
              Unsecured Portion = E – P – Cf
              where:
              (i) E = E calculated in accordance with PIB section 4.9;
              (ii) P = notional amount of eligible credit protection received; and
              (iii) Cf = fair value of eligible financial Collateral received; or
              (b) for an Authorised Firm using the FCCA:
              Unsecured Portion = E* – P
              where —
              (i) E* = E* calculated in accordance with PIB section 4.9; and
              (ii) P = notional amount of eligible credit protection received.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.12.26

              An Authorised Firm must apply a 100% risk weight to any CR Exposure in the residential mortgage asset class that is past due for more than 90 days.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.13 Credit Risk Mitigation

          • PIB 4.13 Guidance

            This section sets out the principles and methodologies for the recognition of Credit Risk mitigation in the calculation of Credit RWA.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • General Requirements

            • PIB 4.13.1

              (1) An Authorised Firm must not recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation unless:
              (a) all documentation relating to that mitigation is binding on all relevant parties and legally enforceable in all relevant jurisdictions; and
              (b) the Authorised Firm complies with the Rules set out in this section, as applicable.
              (2) Where the calculation of Credit RWA already takes into account the Credit Risk mitigant, the provisions of this section do not apply.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.13.1 Guidance

                An Authorised Firm should conduct sufficient legal review to verify this and have a well-founded legal basis to reach this conclusion, and undertake such further review as necessary to ensure continuing enforceability. The review should cover relevant jurisdictions such as the jurisdiction whose law governs the credit protection or Collateral agreement and the jurisdiction whose law governs the transaction subject to the credit protection or Collateral agreement. There should be sufficient written documentary evidence to adequately support the conclusion drawn and rebut any legal challenge. While an Authorised Firm may use either in-house or external legal counsel, it should consider whether or not in-house counsel opinion is appropriate. The senior management of the Authorised Firm should ensure that an officer of the Authorised Firm who is legally qualified and independent of the parties originating the transaction reviews the legal opinion and confirms that he is satisfied that an adequate review has been completed and that he agrees with the conclusions drawn. A record of these reviews should be kept and made available at the request of the DFSA.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.2

              Where an Authorised Firm uses multiple Credit Risk mitigation for a single Exposure, the Authorised Firm must divide the Exposure into portions covered by each mitigation and must calculate the Credit Risk-weighted Exposure amount of each portion separately. An Authorised Firm must apply the same approach when recognising eligible credit protection by a single protection provider where the eligible credit protection has differing maturities.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.3

              (1) An Authorised Firm must take all appropriate steps to ensure the effectiveness of the Credit Risk mitigation arrangements it employs and to address related risks.
              (2) Where an Authorised Firm reduces or transfers Credit Risk by the use of Credit Risk mitigation, an Authorised Firm must employ appropriate and effective policies and procedures to identify and control other risks which arise as a consequence of the transfer.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.13.3 Guidance

                1. The use of techniques to reduce or transfer Credit Risk may simultaneously increase other risks (residual risks) which include legal, operational, liquidity and Market Risks. The DFSA expects an Authorised Firm to employ methods to identify and control these risks, including:
                a. strategy;
                b. consideration of the underlying credit;
                c. valuation;
                d. policies and procedures;
                e. systems;
                f. control of roll-off risks; and
                g. management of Concentration Risk arising from the use of Credit Risk mitigation and the interaction of such risk with the overall Credit Risk profile of the Authorised Firm.
                2. In order to fulfil the above, an Authorised Firm should ensure a clearly articulated strategy for the use of Credit Risk mitigation as an intrinsic part of the general credit strategy of an Authorised Firm.
                3. Where an Exposure is subject to Credit Risk mitigation, credit managers should continue to assess the Exposure on the basis of the obligor's creditworthiness. Credit managers should obtain and analyse sufficient financial information to determine the obligor's risk profile and its management and operational capabilities.
                4. Collateral should be revalued frequently, and the unsecured Exposure should also be monitored frequently. Frequent revaluation is prudent, and the revaluation of marketable securities should occur on at least a daily basis. Furthermore, measures of the potential unsecured Exposure under collateralised transactions should be calculated under stressed and normal conditions. One such measure would take account of the time and cost involved if the obligor or Counterparty were to default and the Collateral had to be liquidated. Furthermore, the setting of limits for collateralised Counterparties should take account of the potential unsecured Exposure. Stress tests and scenario analysis should be conducted to enable the Authorised Firm to understand the behaviour of its portfolio of Credit Risk mitigation arrangements under unusual market conditions. Any unusual or disproportionate risk identified should be managed and controlled.
                5. Clear policies and procedures should be established in respect of Collateral management, including:
                a. the terms of Collateral agreements;
                b. the types of Collateral and enforcement of Collateral terms (e.g. waivers of posting deadlines);
                c. the management of legal risks;
                d. the administration of agreement (e.g. detailed plans for determining default and liquidating Collateral); and
                e. the prompt resolution of disputes, such as valuation of Collateral or positions, acceptability of Collateral, fulfilment of legal obligations and the interpretation of contract terms.
                6. The policies and procedures referred to under Guidance note 1(d) should be supported by Collateral management systems capable of tracking the location and status of posted Collateral (including re-hypothecated Collateral), outstanding Collateral calls and settlement problems.
                7. Where an Authorised Firm obtains credit protection that differs in maturity from the underlying credit Exposure, the Authorised Firm should monitor and control its roll-off risks, i.e. the fact that the Authorised Firm will be fully exposed when the protection expires, and the risk that it will be unable to purchase credit protection or ensure its capital adequacy when the credit protection expires.
                8. Taking as Collateral large quantities of instruments issued by one obligor creates Concentration Risk. An Authorised Firm should have a clearly defined policy with respect to the amount of Concentration Risk it is prepared to run. Such a policy might, for example, include a cap on the amount of Collateral it would be prepared to take from a particular Issuer or market. The Authorised Firm should also take Collateral and purchased credit protection into account when assessing the potential concentrations in its overall credit profile.
                9. Notwithstanding the presence of Credit Risk mitigation considered for the purposes of calculating Credit RWA amounts, an Authorised Firm should continue to undertake a full Credit Risk assessment of the underlying Exposure.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.4

              (1) An Authorised Firm must be able to satisfy the DFSA that it has systems in place to manage potential concentration of risk arising from its use of guarantees and Credit Derivatives.
              (2) An Authorised Firm must be able to demonstrate how its strategy in respect of its use of Credit Risk mitigation techniques, and in particular use of Credit Derivatives and guarantees interacts with its management of its overall risk profile.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Collateral

            • PIB 4.13.4 Guidance

              In order to recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of the types of Collateral set out in Rules PIB 4.13.5 to PIB 4.13.7, an Authorised Firm must ensure that the relevant requirements in PIB Rule 4.13.8 are complied with.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.5

              (1) For an Authorised Firm using the FCSA, eligible financial Collateral comprises:
              (a) cash (as well as certificates of deposit or other similar instruments issued by the Authorised Firm) on deposit with the Authorised Firm;
              (b) gold;
              (c) any debt security:
              (i) with an Original Maturity of one year or less that has a short-term Credit Quality Grade of 3 or better as set out in PIB section 4.12; or
              (ii) with an Original Maturity of more than one year that has a Credit Quality Grade of 4 or better as set out in PIB section 4.12 if it is issued by a central government or Central Bank, or a Credit Quality Grade of 3 or better as set out in PIB section 4.12 if it is issued by any other entity;
              (d) any debt security issued by a bank that does not have an external credit assessment by a recognised ECAI if it fulfils the following criteria:
              (i) any debt security which is listed on a regulated exchange;
              (ii) the debt security is classified as senior debt, not subordinated to any other debt obligations of its Issuer;
              (iii) all other rated debt securities issued by the same Issuer which rank equally with the mentioned debt security have a long term or short term (as applicable) Credit Quality Grade by a recognised ECAI of "3" or better;
              (iv) the Authorised Firm is not aware of information to suggest that the issue would justify a Credit Quality Grade of below "3" as indicated in (iii) above; and
              (v) the Authorised Firm can demonstrate to the DFSA that the market liquidity of the debt security is sufficient to enable the Authorised Firm to dispose the debt security at market price.
              (e) any equity security (including convertible bonds) that is included in a main index; or
              (f) any Unit in a Collective Investment Fund where:
              (i) a price for the units is publicly quoted daily; and
              (ii) at least 90% of the deposited property of the Fund is invested in instruments listed in this Rule.
              (2) Cash-funded credit-linked notes issued by an Authorised Firm against Exposures in the Non-Trading Book which fulfil the criteria for eligible Credit Derivatives must be treated as cash collateralised transactions.
              (3) Cash, mentioned in (1)(a), includes cash on deposit, certificates of deposit or other similar instruments issued by the Authorised Firm that are held as Collateral at a third-party bank in a non-custodial arrangement and that are pledged or assigned to the Authorised Firm. This is subject to the pledge or assignment being unconditional and irrevocable. Under the FCSA, the risk weight to be applied to the Exposure covered by such Collateral must be the risk weight of the third-party bank.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.13.5 Guidance

                1. For the purposes of Rule PIB 4.13.5 and PIB 4.13.6, eligible financial Collateral excludes any T1 Capital instrument or T2 Capital instrument issued by any entity in the Financial Group of the Authorised Firm, which is held by the Authorised Firm or any of its Financial Group entities as Collateral.
                2. For an Authorised Firm using Units of a Fund under the FCSA approach, the use or potential use by that Fund of Derivative instruments solely to hedge investments listed in PIB Rule 4.13.5 should not preclude the Units in that Fund from being recognised as eligible financial Collateral.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.6

              For an Authorised Firm using the FCCA, eligible financial Collateral comprises:

              (a) any instrument listed in PIB Rule 4.13.5;
              (b) any equity Security (including a convertible bond) that is traded on a regulated exchange;
              (c) any Unit in a Collective Investment Fund which invests in equity securities referred to in (b), where:
              (i) a price for the Units is publicly quoted daily; and
              (ii) at least 90% of the deposited property of the Fund is invested in instruments listed in this Rule and PIB Rule 4.13.5.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.7

              In the case of any Counterparty Risk Exposures in Rules PIB 4.13.5. and PIB 4.13.6 arising from an SFT which are included in the Trading Book, eligible financial Collateral includes all instruments which an Authorised Firm may include in its Trading Book.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.13.7 Guidance

                For an Authorised Firm using Units of a Fund under the FCSA approach, the use or potential use by that Fund of Derivative instruments solely to hedge investments listed in PIB Rule 4.13.5 should not preclude the Units in that Fund from being recognised as eligible financial Collateral.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Requirements for Recognition of Collateral

            • PIB 4.13.8

              An Authorised Firm must ensure that the following requirements are complied with before it recognises the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of any Collateral:

              (a) the legal mechanism by which Collateral is pledged, assigned or transferred must confer on the Authorised Firm the right to liquidate or take legal possession of the Collateral, in a timely manner, in the event of the default, insolvency or bankruptcy (or one or more otherwise-defined credit events set out in the transaction documentation) of the Counterparty (and, where applicable, of the custodian holding the Collateral);
              (b) the Authorised Firm has taken all steps necessary to fulfil those requirements under the law applicable to the Authorised Firm's interest in the Collateral for obtaining and maintaining an enforceable security interest by registering it with a registrar or for exercising a right to net or set off in relation to title transfer Collateral;
              (c) the credit quality of the Counterparty and the value of the Collateral do not have a material positive correlation;
              (d) securities issued by the Counterparty or any Closely Related Counterparty are not eligible;
              (e) the Authorised Firm has implemented procedures for the timely liquidation of Collateral to ensure that any legal conditions required for declaring default of Counterparty and liquidating the Collateral are observed, and that the Collateral can be liquidated promptly; and
              (f) where the Collateral is held by a custodian, the Authorised Firm has taken reasonable steps to ensure that the custodian segregates the Collateral from its own assets.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Guarantees

            • PIB 4.13.9

              (1) An Authorised Firm may recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of a guarantee only if it is provided by any of the following entities:
              (a) central government or Central Bank;
              (b) MDB referred to in PIB Rule 4.12.8
              (c) International Organisations referred to in PIB Rule 4.12.9;
              (d) PSE;
              (e) banks and securities firms which qualify for inclusion in bank asset class; or
              (f) any other entity that has a Credit Quality Grade "3" or above.
              (2) An Authorised Firm must not recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of a guarantee unless all of the following requirements are complied with:
              (a) the guarantee is an explicitly documented obligation assumed by the guarantor;
              (b) the guarantee represents a direct claim on the guarantor;
              (c) the extent of the credit protection cover is clearly defined and incontrovertible;
              (d) other than in the event of non-payment by the Authorised Firm of money due in respect of the guarantee if applicable, there is an irrevocable obligation on the part of the guarantor to pay out a predetermined amount upon the occurrence of a credit event, as defined under the guarantee;
              (e) the guarantee does not contain any clause, the fulfilment of which is outside the direct control of the Authorised Firm, that:
              (i) would allow the guarantor to cancel the guarantee unilaterally;
              (ii) would increase the effective cost of the guarantee as a result of deteriorating credit quality of the underlying Exposure;
              (iii) could prevent the guarantor from being obliged to pay out in a timely manner in the event that the underlying obligor fails to make any payment due; or
              (iv) could allow the maturity of the guarantee agreed ex-ante to be reduced ex-post by the guarantor;
              (f) the Authorised Firm is able in a timely manner to pursue the guarantor for any monies outstanding under the documentation governing the transaction on the default of, or non-payment by, the underlying obligor without first having to take legal action to pursue the underlying obligor for payment; and
              (g) the guarantee covers all types of payments that the underlying obligor is expected to make under the documentation governing the transaction, except in the case of accrued interest, accrued expenses or fees outstanding, where these are deemed immaterial.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.13.9 Guidance

                1. PIB Rule 4.13.9(2)(e) does not include any guarantee with a cancellation clause where it is provided that any obligation incurred or transaction entered into prior to any cancellation, unilateral or otherwise, continues to be guaranteed by the guarantor.
                2. The guarantee payments may be in the form of the guarantor making a lump sum payment of all monies to the Authorised Firm or the guarantor assuming the future payment obligations of the Counterparty covered by the guarantee, as specified in the relevant documentation governing the guarantee.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.10

              In addition to the requirements in PIB Rule 4.13.9, where an Authorised Firm has an Exposure that is protected by a guarantee or that is counter-guaranteed by a central government or Central Bank, a regional government or local authority or a PSE claims on which are treated as claims on the central government in whose jurisdiction they are established, a MDB or an international organisation to which a 0% risk weight is assigned under PIB section 4.12, an Authorised Firm may treat the Exposure as being protected by a direct guarantee from the central government or Central Bank in question, provided the following requirements are complied with:

              (a) the counter-guarantee covers all Credit Risk elements of the Exposure;
              (b) both the original guarantee and the counter-guarantee comply with all the requirements for guarantees set out in this section, except that the counter-guarantee need not be direct and explicit with respect to the original Exposure; and
              (c) the Authorised Firm is able to satisfy the DFSA that the cover is robust and that nothing in the historical evidence suggests that the coverage of the counter-guarantee is less than effectively equivalent to that of a direct guarantee by the entity in question.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Credit Derivatives

            • PIB 4.13.11

              (1) An Authorised Firm may recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of a Credit Derivative only if it is provided by any of the following entities:
              (a) central government or Central Bank;
              (b) MDB referred to in Rules PIB 4.12.7 to PIB 4.12.9;
              (c) International Organisations referred to in PIB Rule 4.12.9;
              (d) PSE;
              (e) banks and securities firms which qualify for inclusion in bank asset class; or
              (f) any other entity that has a Credit Quality Grade "3" or better.
              (2) An Authorised Firm may recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of only the following types of Credit Derivatives:
              (a) credit default swaps;
              (b) total return swaps;
              (c) credit linked notes which are cash funded; and
              (d) instruments that are composed of, or are similar in economic substance, to one or more of the Credit Derivatives in (a) to (c).
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.12

              An Authorised Firm must not recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of any Credit Derivative unless all of the following requirements are complied with:

              (a) the terms and conditions of any credit protection obtained via a Credit Derivative must be set out in writing by both the Authorised Firm and the provider of credit protection;
              (b) the Credit Derivative must represent a direct claim on the provider of credit protection;
              (c) the extent of the credit protection cover is clearly defined and incontrovertible;
              (d) other than in the event of non-payment by the Authorised Firm of money due in respect of the Credit Derivative, there is an irrevocable obligation on the part of the provider of the credit protection to pay out a pre-determined amount upon the occurrence of a credit event, as defined under the Credit Derivative contract;
              (e) the Credit Derivative contract must not contain any clause, the fulfilment of which is outside the direct control of the Authorised Firm, that:
              (i) would allow the provider of credit protection to cancel the credit protection cover unilaterally;
              (ii) would increase the effective cost of the credit protection cover as a result of deteriorating credit quality of the underlying Exposure;
              (iii) could prevent the provider of credit protection from being obliged to pay out in a timely manner in the event that the underlying obligor fails to make any payment due; or
              (iv) could allow the maturity of the credit protection agreed ex-ante to be reduced ex-post by the provider of credit protection;
              (f) the credit events specified by the contracting parties must at a minimum cover:
              (i) failure to pay the amounts due under terms of the underlying Exposure that are in effect at the time of such failure (with a grace period, if any, that is closely in line with the grace period in the underlying Exposure);
              (ii) bankruptcy, insolvency or inability of the underlying obligor to pay its debts, or its failure or admission in writing of its inability generally to pay its debts as they become due, and analogous events; and
              (iii) restructuring of the underlying Exposure involving forgiveness or postponement of principal, interest or fees that results in a credit loss event (i.e. charge-off, specific provision or other similar debit to the profit and loss account);
              (g) the Credit Derivative must not terminate prior to the maturity of the underlying Exposure or expiration of any grace period required for a default on the underlying Exposure to occur as a result of a failure to pay;
              (h) a robust valuation process to estimate loss reliably must be in place in order to estimate loss reliably for any Credit Derivative that allows for cash settlement. There must be a clearly specified period for obtaining post-credit event valuations of the underlying obligation;
              (i) where the right or ability of the Authorised Firm to transfer the underlying Exposure to the credit protection provider is required for settlement, the terms of the underlying Exposure must provide that any required consent to such transfer may not be unreasonably withheld;
              (j) the identity of the parties responsible for determining whether a credit event has occurred must be clearly defined. This determination must not be the sole responsibility of the credit protection provider. The Authorised Firm must have the right or ability to inform the credit protection provider of the occurrence of a credit event; and
              (k) the underlying obligation and the reference obligation specified in the Credit Derivative contract for the purpose of determining the cash settlement value or the deliverable obligation or for the purpose of determining whether a credit event has occurred may be different only if:
              (i) the reference obligation ranks pari passu with or is junior to the underlying obligation; and
              (ii) the underlying obligation and reference obligation share the same obligor (i.e. the same legal entity) and legally enforceable cross-default or cross-acceleration clauses are in place.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.13.12 Guidance

                1. An Authorised Firm should not recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of a total return swap if it purchases credit protection through a total return swap and records the net payments received on the swap as net income, but does not record offsetting deterioration in the value of the underlying asset that is protected (either through reductions in its marked-to-market value or by an addition to reserves).
                2. The DFSA would generally consider the requirements in (f) to have been complied with even if the requirements are not specifically set out so long as the obligations of the credit protection provider under the Credit Derivative contract would include those requirements.
                3. The DFSA would generally consider the cash settlement methodology provided in the ISDA Credit Derivatives Definitions as satisfying the requirement for obtaining post-credit event valuations of the underlying obligation.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Currency Mismatches

            • PIB 4.13.13

              (1) In the case where there is a currency mismatch between the credit protection and the underlying Exposure, an Authorised Firm must reduce the amount of the Exposure deemed to be protected by applying a haircut, as follows:
              Protected portion GA = G (1 - HFX)
              where:
              (a) G = notional amount of the credit protection; and
              (b) HFX = haircut appropriate for currency mismatch between the credit protection and underlying obligation Exposure based on a ten-business day holding period, assuming daily mark-to-market.
              (2) An Authorised Firm must determine HFX in the following manner:
              (a) if the Authorised Firm uses standard supervisory haircuts, HFX is 8%; and
              (b) if the Authorised Firm uses own-estimate haircuts, it must estimate HFX according to Rules PIB A4.3.6 to PIB A4.3.26 in PIB App4 based on a ten-business day holding period, assuming daily mark-to-market.
              (3) If the credit protection is not marked-to-market daily, HFX must be scaled in accordance with PIB Rule A4.3.25.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Maturity Mismatches

            • PIB 4.13.14

              An Authorised Firm may recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation for an Exposure where there is a maturity mismatch only if the Credit Risk mitigant has an Original Maturity of at least one year and a residual maturity of more than three months. For the purposes of calculating Credit RWA, a maturity mismatch occurs when the residual maturity of the Credit Risk mitigant is less than that of the underlying Exposure.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.15

              (1) An Authorised Firm must determine the maturity of the underlying Exposure and the maturity of the Credit Risk mitigant conservatively. The residual maturity of the underlying Exposure must be gauged as the longest possible remaining time before the Counterparty is scheduled to fulfil its obligation, taking into account any applicable grace period.
              (2) In the case of Credit Risk mitigant, embedded options which may reduce the term of the credit protection must be taken into account so that the shortest possible residual maturity is used. Where a call is at the discretion of the protection seller, the residual maturity will be at the first call date. If the call is at the discretion of the Authorised Firm but the terms of the arrangement at origination of the Credit Derivative contain a positive incentive for the Authorised Firm to call the transaction before contractual maturity, the remaining time to the first call date will be deemed to be the residual maturity.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.16

              (1) An Authorised Firm must calculate the value of the Credit Risk mitigation adjusted for any maturity mismatch (referred to as "PA"), using the following formula:
              PA = P(t-0.25)/(T-0.25)
              where —
              (a) P = value of the credit protection (e.g. Collateral amount, guarantee amount) adjusted for any haircuts;
              (b) t = min (T, residual maturity of the Credit Risk mitigant) expressed in years; and
              (c) T = min (5, residual maturity of the Exposure) expressed in years.
              (2) For residual maturity of the Exposure in the case of a basket of Exposures with different maturities, an Authorised Firm must use the longest maturity of any of the Exposures as the maturity of all the Exposures being hedged.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.13.16 Guidance

                The positive incentive for an Authorised Firm to call the transaction before contractual maturity as referred in PIB Rule 4.13.15 would be, for example, a situation wherein there is a step-up in cost in conjunction with a call feature or where the effective cost of cover remains the same even if credit quality remains the same or increases.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • On-balance Sheet Netting

            • PIB 4.13.17

              (1) An Authorised Firm may recognise as eligible the Netting of an on-balance sheet Exposure against an offsetting on-balance sheet item if the related Netting agreement meets the condition in PIB Rule 4.13.19.
              (2) Eligibility for Netting is limited to reciprocal cash balances between the Authorised Firm and its Counterparty. Only loans and deposits of the Authorised Firm may be subject to a modification of their Credit RWAs as a result of an on-balance sheet Netting agreement.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.18

              (1) Assets (loans) and liabilities (deposits) subject to recognised on-balance sheet Netting are to be treated as cash Collateral using the formula in PIB A4.3.6, under which an Authorised Firm may use zero haircuts for Exposure and Collateral.
              (2) When a currency mismatch exists, an Authorised Firm must apply the standard supervisory haircut of 8% for currency mismatch.
              (3) When a maturity mismatch exists between the off-setting items, an Authorised Firm must apply the Rules PIB 4.13.14 to PIB 4.13.16 to address the maturity mismatch.
              (4) Net credit Exposure, after taking into account recognised Netting, will be subject to the applicable CRW for the Counterparty.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.13.19

              For an Authorised Firm to recognise an on-balance sheet Netting agreement for the purposes of PIB Rule 4.13.17, all of the following conditions must be satisfied:

              (1)
              (a) both the on-balance sheet Exposure (asset) and the offsetting on-balance sheet item (liability) are owing between the Authorised Firm and the same Counterparty;
              (b) the Authorised Firm nets the on-balance sheet Exposure (asset) and the offsetting on-balance sheet item (liability) in a way that is consistent with its legal rights against the Counterparty;
              (c) a legal right of set-off exists;
              (d) the agreement between the Authorised Firm and the Counterparty does not contain a Walkaway Clause;
              (e) the Netting provided for in the agreement between the Authorised Firm and the Counterparty is effective and enforceable in the event of default, bankruptcy, liquidation or other similar circumstances affecting either the Counterparty or the Authorised Firm;
              (f) the on-balance sheet Exposure (asset) and the offsetting on-balance sheet item (liability) are monitored, controlled and managed on a net basis; and
              (g) the potential for roll-off Exposure is monitored and controlled where there is a maturity mismatch; and
              (2) it has, in respect of each relevant jurisdiction, a written and reasoned legal opinion which:
              (a) has been provided by an external source of legal advice of appropriate professional standing;
              (b) confirms that the requirements of (1)(a)-(e) are met for all relevant jurisdictions; and
              (c) is kept under review to ensure that it remains correct and up to date in the event of changes to the relevant laws.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.13.19 Guidance

                1. An Authorised Firm should assess whether any qualifications, assumptions or reservations contained in the legal opinion cast doubt upon the enforceability of the Netting agreement. If, as a result of the qualifications, assumptions or reservations, there is material doubt about the enforceability of the agreement, the Authorised Firm should assume that the requirements for Netting have not been met.
                2. An Authorised Firm using a standard form Netting agreement and a supporting legal opinion should ensure that the relevant requirements in Rules PIB 4.13.17 to PIB 4.13.19 are met. A standard form Netting agreement is a form of agreement which is prepared by a reputable, internationally recognised industry association and is supported by its own legal opinion. Where additional clauses are added to a standard form Netting agreement, the Authorised Firm should satisfy itself that the amended Netting agreement continues to meet the legal and contractual requirements in Rules PIB 4.13.17 to PIB 4.13.19. For instance, in such cases, an Authorised Firm may wish to obtain a second legal opinion to confirm that the relevant requirements in Rules PIB 4.13.17 to PIB 4.13.19 are still satisfied.
                3. PIB App4 sets out the calculation of the PFCE arising from OTC derivative contracts, on a net basis.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.14 Securitisation

          • Application

            • PIB 4.14.1

              This section applies to an Authorised Firm which:

              (a) acts as an Originator in a securitisation;
              (b) transfers Credit Risk on a single item or on a pool of items by any of the legal transfer methods set out in PIB Rule A4.10.1;
              (c) acts as a Sponsor in a securitisation; or
              (d) provides Credit Enhancement, liquidity support, or Underwriting or dealing facilities relating to the items being transferred.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Interpretation

            • PIB 4.14.2

              For the purposes of this chapter and PIB App4, "securitisation" includes Traditional Securitisation, Synthetic Securitisation and Re-securitisation, as defined below:

              (a) A Traditional Securitisation is a structure where the cash flow from an underlying pool of Exposures is used to service at least two different stratified risk positions or tranches reflecting different degrees of Credit Risk. Payments to the investors depend upon the performance of the specified underlying Exposures, as opposed to being derived from an obligation of the entity originating those Exposures. A Traditional Securitisation will generally assume the movement of assets off balance sheet.
              (b) A Synthetic Securitisation is a structure with at least two different stratified risk positions or tranches that reflect different degrees of Credit Risk where Credit Risk of an underlying pool of Exposures is transferred, in whole or in part, through the use of funded (e.g. credit-linked notes) or unfunded (e.g. credit default swaps) Credit Derivatives or guarantees that serve to hedge the Credit Risk of the portfolio. Accordingly, the investors' potential risk is dependent upon the performance of the underlying pool. A Synthetic Securitisation may or may not involve the removal of assets off balance sheet.
              (c) A Re-securitisation Exposure is a securitisation Exposure in which the associated underlying pool of Exposures is tranched and at least one of the underlying Exposures is a securitisation Exposure. In addition, an Exposure to one or more Re-securitisation Exposures is a Re-securitisation Exposure.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.3 Guidance

                The DFSA would treat other techniques to achieve the financing or re-financing of assets which are legally transferred to a scheme, by packaging them into a tradable form through the issue of Securities which are secured on the assets and serviced from the cashflows which they yield as "securitisation".

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Systems and Controls for the Use of Securitisations

            • PIB 4.14.3

              An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain appropriate risk management systems to identify, manage, monitor and, where applicable, control all risks in relation to a securitisation transaction whether the firm is an investor, Originator or Sponsor. In particular, such risk management systems should effectively address the following risks:

              (a) the liquidity and capital implications that may arise from the items returning to the balance sheet;
              (b) the Operational Risks that may arise under a securitisation; and
              (c) reputational risks that may arise as a result of its securitisation activities.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.4

              An Authorised Firm must have appropriate policies and procedures to ensure that the economic substance of the transaction is fully reflected in the process of managing the risks arising from such transactions. An Authorised Firm must have appropriate policies and procedures in place to document its systems and controls in relation to securitisation risks. These policies should include details on the capital effects of the securitisation as set out in this chapter.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.5

              An Authorised Firm must conduct periodic stress tests in relation to its securitisation activities and off balance sheet Exposures, including testing of future ability to transact securitisation as a means of Credit Risk mitigation or for liquidity purposes.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.5 Guidance

                1. The periodic stress testing in relation to securitisation activities referred to in PIB Rule 4.14.5 should consider the firm-wide impact of those activities and Exposures in stressed market conditions and the implications for other sources of risk. Such stress tests should include both existing securitisation Exposures and transactions in the pipeline, as there is a risk of the pipeline transactions not being completed in a stressed market scenario.
                2. The frequency and extent of stress testing to fulfil the requirements of PIB Rule 4.14.5 should be determined on the basis of the materiality of the Authorised Firm's securitisation volumes and its off-balance sheet Exposures.
                3. An Authorised Firm should have procedures in place to assess and respond to the results produced from the stress testing and these should be taken into account under the ICAAP.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.6

              In order to qualify for using the Rules specified in this section, and particularly the risk weighting approach outlined below, an Authorised Firm must demonstrate the following:

              (a) a comprehensive understanding of the risk characteristics of its individual securitisation Exposures, whether on balance sheet or off balance sheet, as well as the risk characteristics of the pools underlying securitisation Exposures;
              (b) ability to access the performance information on the underlying pools on an on-going basis in a timely manner; and
              (c) a thorough understanding of all structural features of a securitisation transaction that would materially impact the performance of the Authorised Firm's Exposure to the transaction, such as waterfall triggers, Credit Enhancements, liquidity enhancements, market value triggers and deal specific definitions of default.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.6 Guidance

                1. An Authorised Firm which is an investor, Originator or Sponsor of a Securitisation should fully understand the risks it has assumed in order to ensure that it can accurately determine the Capital Requirements for the Exposures arising from the securitisation in accordance with the Rules in this section.
                2. For the purposes of PIB Rule 4.14.6(b) information should include the percentage of loans 30,60, 90 days past due, default rates, prepayment rates, loans in foreclosure, property type, occupancy, average credit score etc. For Re-securitisations, Authorised Firms should have information relating to not only the underlying securitisation transactions but also the characteristics and performance of the underlying pools of such transactions.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.7

              Where an Authorised Firm is either an Originator or a Sponsor of a Traditional Securitisation or a Synthetic Securitisation:

              (a) the Authorised Firm intending to conduct the securitisation must notify the DFSA at least 30 days in advance of the proposed execution of the securitisation;
              (b) the Authorised Firm conducting the securitisation must calculate its Credit RWAs for all resultant Exposures from that securitisation, in accordance with PIB section 4.8, provided the requirements of this section are met; and
              (c) the Authorised Firm conducting the securitisation must produce documentation reflecting the execution and economic substance of the transaction.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.7 Guidance

                The notification made to the DFSA under (a) should include, inter alia, amounts of assets subject to securitisation, amounts retained, details of securitisation including legal structure, rating, tranches, details of legal transfer and any Credit Risk mitigation applied and implications on the capital and liquidity position on the Authorised Firm.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Calculation of Credit RWA Arising from Securitisations

            • PIB 4.14.8

              An Authorised Firm must calculate the Credit RWA amounts for Exposures arising from securitisations according to the requirements in this section.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.8 Guidance

                1. An Authorised Firm should apply the securitisation framework set out in this section for determining the regulatory Capital Requirements on Exposures arising from traditional and Synthetic Securitisations or similar structures that contain features common to both.
                2. This section sets out the requirements for Originators, Authorised Firms which transfer Credit Risk from their balance sheets and Sponsors in a securitisation transaction involving Non-Trading Book Exposures. This section also sets out the methodologies for calculation of RWA amounts for securitisation Exposures. The Rules setting out the methodologies for calculation of Market Risk Capital Requirement amounts for securitisation Exposures held in the Trading Book are specified in PIB chapter 5 and PIB App5 of this module.
                3. As securitisations may be structured in many different ways, an Authorised Firm engaging in the activities relating to securitisations (whether traditional or Synthetic) must ensure that the economic substance of the transaction is fully considered, and reflected, in determining the capital treatment of a securitisation, rather than relying on the legal form of the Securitisation.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.9

              An Authorised Firm is required, subject to PIB Rule 4.14.12, to include all securitisation Exposures in its calculation of Credit RWAs relating to securitisations, including the following:

              (a) those arising from the provision of Credit Risk mitigants to a securitisation;
              (b) investments in asset backed Securities;
              (c) retention of a subordinated tranche;
              (d) extension of a liquidity facility; and
              (e) extension of Credit Enhancement.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.10

              An Authorised Firm must include in its calculation of Credit RWA all of its securitisation Exposures held in the Non-Trading Book, except for those securitisation Exposures which the Authorised Firm is required to include as deductions from T1 Capital and deductions from T2 Capital.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.11

              Repurchased securitisation transactions must be treated as retained securitisation Exposures.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Deductions

            • PIB 4.14.12

              (1) An Authorised Firm may deduct SE Exposures which it has chosen not to treat in accordance with Rules PIB 4.14.8 to PIB 4.14.11 from Capital Resources — 100% from CET1.
              (2) Credit-Enhancing Interest-Only Strips (net of the deductions from CET1 Capital required at PIB Rule 4.14.13) are deducted 100% from CET1 Capital.
              (3) Deductions from capital may be calculated net of specific provisions taken against relevant securitisation Exposures.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.13

              An Authorised Firm must include as deductions from CET1 Capital any increase in issued capital or reserves resulting from a securitisation, such as that associated with expected future margin income resulting in a gain-on-sale that is recognised as issued capital or reserves.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.13 Guidance

                Gain-on-sale arises when there has been an increase in equity of the Authorised Firm associated with recognising the discounted value of the expected future margin income as part of the regulatory capital.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.14

              An Authorised Firm must assign a securitisation Exposure to a Credit Quality Grade based on the external credit assessment (where available) that is applicable to the securitisation Exposure in accordance with relevant Rules in this chapter.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Implicit Support

            • PIB 4.14.15

              An Originator or a Sponsor of a securitisation must not provide Implicit Support to a securitisation transaction with a view to reducing potential or actual losses to investors outside of its contractual obligations;

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.16

              If an Originator fails to comply with PIB Rule 4.14.15 in respect of a securitisation, it:

              (a) must include all the underlying Exposures of the securitisation in its calculation of Credit RWAs as if those Exposures had not been Securitised and were on the balance sheet of the Authorised Firm;
              (b) must not recognise any gain-on-sale of assets to the securitisation; and,
              (c) must disclose to investors that the Authorised Firm has provided non contractual support and the regulatory capital impact of doing so.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Requirements in Order for a Traditional Securitisation to be Excluded from the Calculation of RWA

            • PIB 4.14.17

              (1) An Authorised Firm which is an Originator or a Sponsor of a Traditional Securitisation may exclude Securitised Exposures from the calculation of Credit RWA amounts only if all of the conditions detailed in PIB Rule A4.10.1 have been complied with.
              (2) An Authorised Firm meeting the requirements specified in PIB Rule A4.10.1 must hold regulatory capital against any securitisation Exposures it retains.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Requirements in Order for a Synthetic Securitisation to be Excluded from the Calculation of RWA

            • PIB 4.14.18

              (1) An Authorised Firm which is an Originator or a Sponsor of a Synthetic Securitisation may recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of the Synthetic Securitisation in calculating its SE Exposure RWAs, only if:
              (a) all of the conditions detailed in PIB Rule A4.10.2 have been complied with;
              (b) the effects of Credit Risk mitigation are obtained through eligible credit protection, eligible financial Collateral or both; and
              (c) Credit Risk is transferred to third parties.
              (2) In relation to (b), the Credit Risk mitigation techniques used must meet the requirements of PIB section 4.13.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.18 Guidance

                In relation to (1)(c) the transferor is deemed to have effective control over the transferred Credit Risk Exposures if it has the ability to repurchase the assets, or is obliged to retain the risk of the transferred assets. This does not include the retention of servicing rights.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.19

              (1) An Authorised Firm meeting the conditions in PIB Rule 4.14.18 must still hold regulatory capital against any securitisation Exposures it retains.
              (2) The Authorised Firm may recognise the effects of Credit Risk mitigation of eligible financial Collateral pledged by any SPE, but it may not recognise any SPE which is an Issuer of securitisation Exposures as an eligible protection provider.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Operational Requirements for Use of External Credit Assessments

            • PIB 4.14.20

              The external credit assessment used for determining the applicable risk weight for a CR Exposure must be determined by taking into account the entire amount of Credit Risk (principal and interest) an Authorised Firm is exposed to.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.21

              Credit assessments can only be considered from an ECAI, and must meet the following criteria:

              (a) any credit assessments used for the purposes of risk weighting must be publicly available;
              (b) the external credit rating agencies must have expertise and market acceptance in rating securitisations of the nature being used for risk weighting purposes;
              (c) Authorised Firms must apply external credit rating agency ratings consistently to all tranches of securitisations;
              (d) where an Exposure has two ratings from external credit rating agencies the less favourable rating must be used; and
              (e) where an Exposure has more than two assessments by external credit rating agencies the two most favourable ratings can be selected, the review of these assessments is then determined in line with (d).
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.22

              Where any Credit Risk mitigation has been considered as part of any rating applied to a tranche of a securitisation, the risk weighting should be used and no additional capital recognition is permitted.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.23

              An Authorised Firm must treat any securitisation Exposure as an unrated Exposure where:

              (a) the external credit assessment incorporates the credit protection provided directly to the SPE by a protection provider which is not an eligible protection provider;
              (b) the external credit assessment is at least partly based on unfunded support provided by the Authorised Firm itself (e.g. if an Authorised Firm buys ABCP) where it provides an unfunded securitisation Exposure extended to the ABCP Programme, such as a liquidity facility or Credit Enhancement, and that Exposure plays a role in determining the credit assessment on the ABCP, the Authorised Firm must treat the ABCP as if it were not rated and continue to hold capital against the other securitisation Exposures it provides);
              (c) the Credit Risk mitigant is not obtained by the SPE but is separately obtained and applied to a specific securitisation Exposure (e.g. a particular tranche); or
              (d) the Credit Risk mitigation does not meet the eligibility criteria for mitigation specified in PIB section 4.13.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.24

              Where Credit Risk mitigation is applied to a specific Exposure within a securitisation the Authorised Firm must treat the Exposure as unrated, and then use the mitigation as set out in PIB section 4.13 should the Rules contained in that section apply.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.25

              An Authorised Firm must not use an external credit rating agency rating for risk weighting purposes where the assessment is at least partly based on unfunded support provided by the Authorised Firm itself.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.26

              The treatment outlined in PIB Rule 4.14.24 also applies to Exposures in the Authorised Firm's Trading Book. An Authorised Firm's Capital Requirement for such Exposures held in the Trading Book can be no less than the amount required under the Non-Trading Book.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Calculation of RWA Amounts for Securitisation Exposures

            • PIB 4.14.27

              (1) In order to calculate the RWA amount for a securitisation position, the relevant risk weight must be assigned to the Exposure value of the position in accordance with this section, based on the credit quality of the position.
              (2) For the purposes of this Rule, the credit quality of a position must be determined by reference to the applicable credit quality assessment from a recognised external credit rating agency.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.28

              In cases where there are Exposures to different tranches in a securitisation, the Exposure to each tranche must be considered a separate securitisation position.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.29

              The Exposure value of an off-balance sheet securitisation position must, subject to PIB A4.2.2, be its nominal value multiplied by a CCF of 100%, wherever applicable.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.30

              The Exposure value of a securitisation position arising from a financial derivative must be determined in accordance with Rules PIB 4.6.14 to PIB 4.6.21 dealing with treatment of financial derivatives.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Assigning Risk Weights

            • PIB 4.14.31

              An Authorised Firm must assign a risk weight for any SE Exposure in accordance with the tables below, to calculate the Credit RWA amounts for that Exposure.

              Risk Weights for Long-Term securitisation Exposures

              Long Term rating category
              Credit Quality Grade 1 2 3 4 5 and above including unrated
              Risk Weight to be applied to securitisation Exposures(excluding Re-securitisation Exposures) 20% 50% 100% 350% 1000% or Deduction from Capital Resources
              Risk weight applied to Re-securitisation Exposures 40% 100% 225% 650% 1000% or Deduction from Capital Resources

              Risk Weights for Short-Term securitisation Exposures

              Short-term rating category
              Credit Quality Grade I II III IV and above including unrated
              Risk Weight to be applied 20% 50% 100% 1000% or Deduction from Capital Resources
              Risk Weight applied to Re-securitisation Exposures 40% 100% 225% 1000% or deduction from Capital Resources
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.32

              (1) In respect of securitisation positions which are assigned a 1000% risk weighting pursuant to the tables in PIB Rule 4.14.31, an Authorised Firm may as an alternative to including the position in its calculation of Credit RWA amounts, deduct from its CET1 Capital the Exposure value of such positions.
              (2) For the purposes of this Rule, the calculation of the Exposure value may reflect eligible funded credit protection consistent with applicable Rules in this chapter.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.33

              For an Authorised Firm that is an Originator or Sponsor of a securitisation, the Credit RWA amounts calculated for its securitisation positions may be limited to the RWA amounts which would be calculated for the SE Exposures had they not been Securitised subject to the presumed application of a 150% risk weight to all past due items and items belonging to regulatory high risk categories.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.34

              [Not currently in use]

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.35

              [Not currently in use]

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Exceptions to Deduction of Unrated Securitisation Exposures

            • PIB 4.14.36

              In accordance with the tables under PIB Rule 4.14.31, all unrated securitisation positions must be deducted or risk weighted at 1000% with the following exceptions:

              (a) most senior Exposure in a securitisation;
              (b) Exposures that are in a second loss position or better of an ABCP and meet the requirements of PIB Rule 4.14.41; and
              (c) eligible liquidity positions.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Most Senior Exposure in a Securitisation

            • PIB 4.14.37

              (1) Where an Authorised Firm holds or guarantees unrated securitisation Exposure from the most senior tranche in a securitisation, the Authorised Firm may apply the "look through" treatment, provided the composition of the underlying pool of Exposures securitised is known at all times and the Authorised Firm is able to determine the applicable risk weights for the underlying Exposures.
              (2) An Authorised Firm applying the look-through treatment to an unrated securitisation Exposure, pursuant to (1), must apply to that securitisation Exposure the weighted average of the risk weights of the underlying Exposures determined in accordance with the Rules in this chapter, multiplied by a concentration factor.
              (3) For the purposes of (2), the concentration factor is calculated as the sum of the nominal amounts of all the tranches in that securitisation divided by the sum of the nominal amounts of the tranches junior to, or pari-passu with, the tranche in which the position is held, including that tranche itself. The resulting weighted average risk weight must not be higher than 1000% or lower than the risk weight applicable to a more senior tranche which is rated.
              (4) Where the Authorised Firm is unable to determine the risk weights for the underlying Exposures in accordance with this Rule, the unrated securitisation position will not be eligible for the relief and must be deducted from CET 1 Capital of the Authorised Firm.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.38

              An Authorised Firm wishing to apply the treatment referred to in PIB Rule 4.14.37 must notify the DFSA, in writing, at least 30 days in advance, of the intention to adopt this treatment. The notification should include the treatments being adopted and the weightings applied under the provision.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.39

              The resulting weighted average risk weight must not be higher than 1000% or lower than the risk weight applicable to a more senior tranche which is rated.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.40

              An Authorised Firm must have systems and controls in place to monitor effectively the composition of Exposures where the look-through provision has been applied on an ongoing basis.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Exposures that are in a Second Loss Position or Better of an ABCP

            • PIB 4.14.41

              An Authorised Firm may apply a risk weight of 100% or the highest risk weight assigned to any of the underlying Exposures in the ABCP Programme, whichever is higher, to an unrated securitisation Exposure arising from the ABCP Programme, provided the securitisation position complies with the following conditions:

              (a) the subject securitisation Exposure must be in a tranche which is economically in a second loss position or better and the First Loss Position must provide meaningful credit protection to the second loss tranche;
              (b) the associated Credit Risk of the securitisation Exposure is the equivalent of a Credit Quality Grade of III or better in the short-term rating category; and
              (c) the Authorised Firm must not hold a position in the First Loss Position.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Eligible Liquidity Positions

            • PIB 4.14.42

              An Authorised Firm providing an unrated eligible liquidity facility may assign to the resulting securitisation Exposure the highest risk weight that would be applied to any of the underlying Exposures covered by the facility.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.43

              (1) An off balance sheet SE Exposure will receive a 100% CCF unless:
              (a) the Exposure qualifies as an eligible liquidity facility, or
              (b) the Exposure is an eligible Servicer cash advance facility.
              (2) In relation to (1), an eligible Servicer cash advance facility is a facility provided to a securitisation in order to ensure uninterrupted flow of payments to investors. As long as the Servicer is entitled to full reimbursement and this right is senior to all other claims on cash flows from the underlying pool of Exposures, and where these facilities meet the requirements of PIB 4.14.44 and are unconditionally cancellable at any time, any undrawn commitments can then have a 0% CCF applied.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.44

              (1) For the purposes of PIB Rule 4.14.42, an Authorised Firm may treat an Exposure as an eligible liquidity facility provided the following requirements are met:
              (a) the liquidity facility documentation must clearly identify and limit the circumstances under which it may be drawn;
              (b) draws must be limited to the amount that is likely to be repaid from the liquidation of the underlying Exposures and any seller provided Credit Enhancements;
              (c) the facility must not provide credit support by covering for any losses incurred in the underlying pool of Exposures prior to drawdown;
              (d) the facility must not be structured to provide regular or permanent funding;
              (e) the facility must be subject to an asset quality test to preclude it being used to cover Credit Risk Exposures that are in default;
              (f) where the facility is used to fund externally rated Securities the facility can only be used to fund Securities that are externally rated Investment Grade at the time of funding;
              (g) the facility cannot be drawn after all Credit Enhancements from which the liquidity facility would benefit have been exhausted; and
              (h) repayment of draws of the facility cannot be subordinated to any interests of any note holder in the programme or be subject to deferral or waiver.
              (2) Where the Exposure meets the requirements as set out in (1), the following CCF will apply:
              (a) 50% to the eligible liquidity facility regardless of maturity; and
              (b) 100% if an external rating of the liquidity facility is used for the risk weighting.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.45

              (1) An Authorised Firm which provides credit protection for a basket of reference Exposures through an unrated first-to-default Credit Derivative may apply to the securitisation Exposure the aggregate of the risk weights that would be assigned to the reference Exposures, provided that the resulting Capital Requirement does not exceed the notional amount of the credit protection.
              (2) An Authorised Firm which provides credit protection for a basket of reference Exposures through an unrated second-to-default Credit Derivative may apply the treatment referred to in (1), except that in aggregating the risk weights, the reference Exposure with the lowest risk-weighted amount may be excluded.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Overlapping Exposures

            • PIB 4.14.46

              (1) Where an Authorised Firm has two or more overlapping Exposures to a securitisation, the firm must, to the extent that the positions overlap, include in its calculation of Credit RWA amounts only the Exposure, or portion of the Exposure, producing the higher Credit RWA amounts.
              (2) For the purposes of (1), overlapping Exposures result where an Authorised Firm provides two or more facilities (whether they are liquidity facilities or Credit Enhancements) in relation to a securitisation that can be drawn under various conditions with different triggers, with the result that the Authorised Firm provides duplicate coverage to the underlying Exposures. The facilities provided by the Authorised Firm may overlap since a draw on one facility may preclude (in part) a draw on the other facility.
              (3) Where the overlapping Exposures are subject to different conversion factors the Authorised Firm must apply the higher of the conversion factors to the Exposure.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.46 Guidance

                The firm may also recognise such an overlap between capital charges for Specific Risk in relation to positions in the trading book and capital charges for positions in the Non-Trading Book, provided that the firm is able to calculate and compare the capital charges for the relevant positions.

                However, if overlapping facilities are provided by different Authorised Firms, each Authorised Firm must calculate Capital Requirement for the maximum amount of its Exposure.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Credit Risk Mitigation

            • PIB 4.14.47

              Where an Authorised Firm obtains credit protection on a securitisation Exposure, the calculation of Credit RWA amounts must be in accordance with the Rules in Credit Risk mitigation in PIB section 4.13.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.48

              Where an Authorised Firm provides credit protection to a securitisation Exposure it must calculate a Capital Requirement as if it were an investor in the securitisation in line with PIB section 4.13.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.49

              An Authorised Firm must not recognise any SPE which is an Issuer of securitisation Exposures, as an eligible credit protection provider. Guarantees provided must meet the requirements of PIB section 4.13.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.50

              For the purpose of setting regulatory capital against a maturity mismatch, the Capital Requirement must be determined in accordance with PIB section 4.13. When Exposures being hedged have different maturities, the longest maturity must be used. Maturity of credit protection must be calculated in accordance with PIB section 4.13.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Capital Requirements for Securitisations with Early Amortisation Provisions

            • PIB 4.14.51

              An Authorised Firm which is the Originator or Sponsor of a securitisation involving revolving Exposures as well as an Early Amortisation provision, must calculate an additional RWA amount in accordance with PIB Rule 4.14.57 to address the possibility that its Credit Risk Exposure levels may increase following the operation of the Early Amortisation provision.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.51 Guidance

                1. This section sets out the methodology for calculation of the Credit RWA amount by an Originator, when it sells revolving Exposures into a securitisation that contains an Early Amortisation provision.
                2. Early Amortisation of the Securities describes the process whereby the repayment of the investors' interest is brought forward upon the occurrence of specified events. Events that are economic in nature by reference to the financial performance of the transferred assets are known as economic triggers.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.52

              (1) An Authorised Firm which is the Originator or Sponsor of a securitisation involving revolving Exposures, must calculate Credit RWA amounts in respect of the total Exposure related to a securitisation (both drawn and undrawn balances) when:
              (a) the Authorised Firm sells Exposures into a structure that contains an Early Amortisation feature; and
              (b) the Exposures are of a revolving nature.
              (2) Where the underlying pool of a securitisation comprises revolving and term Exposures, an Authorised Firm must apply the amortisation treatment outlined below for determining applicable regulatory capital only to that portion of the underlying pool containing revolving Exposures.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.53

              An Authorised Firm which is the Originator of a Revolving Securitisation that includes economic triggers for Early Amortisation may regard the Exposures as transferred for the period up to the point of repayment, provided that:

              (a) during the amortisation period there is full sharing of interest, principal, expenses, losses and recoveries; and
              (b) the Authorised Firm's risk management system provides warning indicators when economic or non-economic triggers may be activated.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.53 Guidance

                Examples of such triggers include tax events, legal changes resulting in an Authorised Firm's non-performance in its role as a servicing agent, and triggers relating to the insolvency of the Originator.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.54

              An Authorised Firm is not required to calculate a Capital Requirement for Early Amortisation in the following situations:

              (a) replenishment structures where the underlying Exposures do not revolve and the Early Amortisation ends the ability of the Authorised Firm to add new Exposures;
              (b) where the risk associated with revolving assets containing amortisation features that mimic term structures, where the risk does not return to the Authorised Firm;
              (c) structures where the Authorised Firm securitises one or more credit lines and where investors remain fully exposed to future draws by borrowers so that the risk on the underlying facilities does not return to the Originator even after an Early Amortisation event has occurred; or
              (d) where the Early Amortisation clause is solely triggered by events not related to the performance of the Securitised assets or the Authorised Firm, such as material changes in tax laws or regulations.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.55

              For an Authorised Firm subject to the Capital Requirement referred to in PIB Rule 4.14.51, the maximum Credit RWA calculated under that Rule must not exceed the greater of the following:

              (a) the RWA amounts calculated in respect of its positions in the investors' interest; or
              (b) the RWA amounts that would be calculated in respect of the Securitised Exposures, if those had not been securitised.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.56

              An Authorised Firm must deduct from its CET1 Capital any gain-on-sale and Credit-Enhancing Interest-Only Strips arising from any securitisation subject to the provisions of the Rules above.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Calculation of Credit RWA Amounts for Securitisation Positions Subject to Early Amortisation Clause

            • PIB 4.14.57

              In regard to securitisation positions subject to an Early Amortisation clause, the Credit RWA amounts for an Authorised Firm acting as the Originator are calculated as the product of the following:

              (a) the investors' interest
              (b) the appropriate CCF (in accordance with the table in PIB Rule 4.14.61); and
              (c) the appropriate risk weight for the underlying Exposure type.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.57 Guidance

                In relation to PIB Rule 4.14.57(c), the Authorised Firm should also consider whether a line, or facility, is committed or uncommitted. A line is considered to be uncommitted if it is unconditionally cancellable without prior notice by the Authorised Firm. They also differ according to whether the Securitised Exposures are committed retail credit lines or credit lines (such as revolving credit facilities).

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.58

              (1) An Early Amortisation provision that does not satisfy the conditions for a Controlled Early Amortisation provision will be treated as a non-Controlled Early Amortisation provision.
              (2) For the purpose of (1), the conditions for a Controlled Early Amortisation provision are as follows:
              (a) the Authorised Firm must have an appropriate capital/liquidity plan in place to ensure that it has sufficient capital and liquidity available in the event of an Early Amortisation;
              (b) throughout the duration of the transaction, including the amortisation period, there is the same pro rata sharing of interest, principal, expenses, losses and recoveries based on the firm's and investors' relative shares of the receivables outstanding at the beginning of each month;
              (c) the firm must set a period for amortisation that would be sufficient for at least 90% of the total debt outstanding at the beginning of the Early Amortisation period to have been repaid or recognised as in default; and
              (d) the pace of repayment should not be any more rapid than would be allowed by straight-line amortisation over the period set out in (c).
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.59

              For uncommitted retail credit lines in securitisations containing Controlled Early Amortisation which is triggered by the Excess Spread level falling to a specified level, an Authorised Firm must compare the three month average Excess Spread level with the Excess Spread levels at which the Excess Spread is required to be trapped.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.60

              Where the securitisation does not require Excess Spread to be trapped, the trapping point is deemed to be 4.5 percentage points greater than the Excess Spread level at which Early Amortisation is triggered.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.61

              An Authorised Firm must divide the Excess Spread level by the transaction's Excess Spread trapping point to determine the appropriate segments and apply corresponding conversion factors as set out in the following table:

              Controlled Early Amortisation features
                Uncommitted Committed
              Retail Credit Lines 3 Month average Excess Spread CCF 90%
              133.33% of trapping point or more 0%
              <133.33% to 100% of trapping point 1%
              <100% to 75% of trapping point 2%
              <75% to 50% trapping point 10%
              <50% to 25% of trapping point 20%
              <25% 40%
              Non-retail credit lines 90% 90%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Non-Controlled Early Amortisation

            • PIB 4.14.62

              In regard to non-Controlled Early Amortisation, an Authorised Firm must apply the same steps as set out at Rules PIB 4.14.59 to PIB 4.14.61 and determine appropriate segments and apply the corresponding conversion factors as set out in the following table:

              Non-Controlled Early Amortisation features
                Uncommitted Committed
              Retail Credit Lines 3 Month average Excess Spread CCF 100%
              133.33% of trapping point or more 0%
              <133.33% to 100% of trapping point 5%
              <100% to 75% of trapping point 15%
              <75% to 50% trapping point 50%
              <50% of trapping point 100%
              Non-retail credit lines 100% 100%
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Transfers to Special Purpose Entities (SPEs)

            • PIB 4.14.63

              An Authorised Firm need not include in its calculation of Capital Resources or Credit RWA amounts, assets transferred to:

              (a) an SPE; or
              (b) any Person, if the transfer is in connection with a securitisation under which the Issuer of the Securities is an SPE;

              provided that:

              (c) the Authorised Firm does not own any share or proprietary interest in the SPE;
              (d) no more than one member of the Governing Body of the SPE is an officer, partner, or Employee of the Authorised Firm;
              (e) the SPE does not have a name that implies any connection with the Authorised Firm or any other member of the Authorised Firm's Group;
              (f) the Authorised Firm does not fund the SPE except where permitted under the requirements for Credit Enhancement below;
              (g) the Authorised Firm does not provide temporary finance to the SPE to cover cash shortfalls arising from delayed payments or non-performance of loans transferred except where it meets the requirements for liquidity support below;
              (h) the Authorised Firm does not bear any of the recurring expenses of the SPE; and
              (i) any agreements between the Authorised Firm and the SPE are at market rates and at arm's length.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.64

              Where an Originator acts as Underwriter for the Securities issued, the underlying items will not be regarded as being transferred until 90% of the total issuance has been sold to third parties.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Dealing

            • PIB 4.14.65

              An Originator dealing in Securities which would attract a Credit Quality Grade of 4 or better and issued by an SPE must deduct any holdings in such Securities from its CET1 Capital unless the holding is subject to:

              (a) an ongoing limit of 3% of the Securities issued; and
              (b) a limit of 10% of the Securities issued for a period of five business days:
              (i) immediately following close of the transaction; or
              (ii) in the case of Revolving Securitisations only, at the beginning of the scheduled amortisation period.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.66

              An Authorised Firm acting as the Originator and holding in excess of the dealing limits in PIB Rule 4.14.65 must either:

              (a) where the holding is less than 10%, deduct from its CET1 Capital the excess over the dealing limit; or
              (b) where the holding is greater than 10%, regard the transferred risks associated with the items as being back on its balance sheet.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.67

              An Authorised Firm acting as the Originator must not deal in the Securities during the amortisation period.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.68

              An Authorised Firm acting as the Sponsor dealing in the Securities issued by the SPE must include these Securities in the calculation of its Credit RWAs.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.14.69

              An Authorised Firm involved in Synthetic Securitisations must seek individual guidance on a case-by-case basis from the DFSA regarding the regulatory treatment of such transactions.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Recognition of Eligible Financial Collateral under FCSA Approach

            • PIB 4.14.70

              An Authorised Firm which has taken eligible financial Collateral for an SE Exposure and is using the FCSA may recognise the effect of the eligible financial Collateral as follows:

              (a) break down the SE Exposure into:
              (i) a collateralised portion with E equal to the latest fair market value of the eligible financial Collateral; and
              (ii) an uncollateralised portion whose Exposure value equals the E of the SE Exposure less the latest fair market value of the eligible financial Collateral; and
              (b) apply the CRW that is applicable to the eligible financial Collateral to the collateralised portion calculated in accordance with (a)(i) to calculate the Credit RWA amount of the collateralised portion as though the Authorised Firm had a direct Exposure to the eligible financial Collateral; and
              (c) either:
              (i) apply the CRW that is applicable to the SE Exposure to the uncollateralised portion calculated in accordance with (a)(ii) to calculate the Credit RWA amount of the uncollateralised portion; or
              (ii) include the uncollateralised portion as a deduction from CET1 Capital.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.14.70 Guidance

                Collateral in the context of a SE Exposure refers to assets used to hedge the Credit Risk of a securitisation Exposure rather than the underlying Exposures of the securitisation, including Collateral pledged by an SPE.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 4.15 Concentration Risk

          • Applicability and Limits

            • PIB 4.15.1

              This section applies with respect to Trading Book transactions as calculated in PIB App2 and Non-Trading Book transactions as calculated in PIB section 4.8.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.2

              For the purposes of this section an Exposure that arises in the Trading Book is calculated by summing the following:

              (a) the net positive position (long positions net of short positions) for each financial instrument as set out in Rules PIB A4.11.10 to PIB A4.11.28;
              (b) the firm's net Underwriting Exposures for any Counterparty; and
              (c) any other Exposures arising from transactions, agreements and contracts that would give rise to Counterparty Credit Risk.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.3

              For the purposes of this section an Authorised Firm must:

              (a) identify its Exposures;
              (b) identify its Counterparties, including whether any are Closely Related to each other or Connected to the Authorised Firm;
              (c) measure the size of its Exposures;
              (d) establish the value of its Exposures;
              (e) determine the size of its Exposures as a proportion of its Capital Resources;
              (f) identify whether it has Exposures which are subject to the requirements of PIB section 4.13 (Credit Risk mitigation);
              (g) identify which, if any, of its Exposures are exempt in accordance with PIB section A4.11 from the limits set out in Rules PIB 4.15.4 to PIB 4.15.7;
              (h) aggregate its Exposures to the same Counterparty or group of Closely Related Counterparties or group of Connected Counterparties;
              (i) monitor and control its Exposures on a daily basis within the Concentration Risk limits; and
              (j) notify the DFSA immediately of any breach of the limits set out in this section and confirm it in writing.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Large Exposure Limits

            • PIB 4.15.4

              A Large Exposure of an Authorised Firm means a total Exposure which is greater than 10% of the firm's Capital Resources, to any Counterparty, Connected Counterparty, group of Connected Counterparties, or group of Closely Related Counterparties, whether in the Authorised Firm's Trading Book or Non-Trading Book, or both.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.5

              Subject to IFR Rule 5.4.15, an Authorised Firm must ensure that Exposures in its Non-Trading Book and, subject to PIB Rule 4.15.6, Trading Book to a Counterparty or to a group of Closely Related Counterparties or to a group of Connected Counterparties, after taking into account the effect of any eligible Credit Risk mitigations, do not exceed 25% of its Capital Resources.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.6

              Where an Authorised Firm's Trading Book Exposure to a Counterparty or to a group of Closely Related Counterparties or to a group of Connected Counterparties, on its own or when added to any Non-Trading Book Exposure, is likely to exceed 25% of its Capital Resources, the Authorised Firm must immediately give the DFSA written notice, explaining the nature of its Trading Book Exposure and seeking specific guidance from the DFSA regarding the prudential treatment of any such Exposure.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.7

              Subject to IFR Rule 5.4.16 an Authorised Firm must ensure that the sum of its Large Exposures does not exceed 800% of its Capital Resources.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.15.7 Guidance

                1. Exposures can arise in the Non-Trading Book and in the Trading Book from Credit Risk (for example on loans and advances) Counterparty Risk (for example, on unsettled trades and on Derivative contracts) and from Issuer risk (for example, on holdings of equities and bonds).
                2. Some Derivatives contracts may result in an Authorised Firm being exposed to an Issuer as well as the Derivatives Counterparty. For example, a Derivative referenced on a Security may result in an Exposure to the Counterparty, to the transaction and to the Issuer of the underlying Security.
                3. Examples of an Exposure are actual or potential claims on a Counterparty including contingent liabilities arising in the normal course of an Authorised Firm's business.
                4. PIB App4 includes further Rules and Guidance on:
                a. fully and partially exempt Exposures, Exposures to undisclosed Counterparties, parental guarantees and capital maintenance agreements;
                b. identification of Exposures;
                c. identification of Closely Related and Connected Counterparties, and exemptions for Connected Counterparties;
                d. measuring Exposures to Counterparties and Issuers in relation to Derivatives, equity indices, and other items; and
                e. country risk Exposure.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Exclusions from the Large Exposure Limits

            • PIB 4.15.8

              (1) For the purposes of this section, Exposure excludes:
              (a) claims and other assets required to be deducted for the purposes of calculating an Authorised Firm's Capital Resources;
              (b) a transaction entered into by an Authorised Firm as depository or as agent that does not create any legal liability on the part of the Authorised Firm;
              (c) claims resulting from foreign exchange transactions where an Authorised Firm has paid its side of the transaction and the countervalue remains unsettled during the 2 business days following the due payment or due delivery date. After 2 business days the claim becomes an Exposure;
              (d) claims arising as a result of money transmission, payment services, clearing and settlement, correspondent banking or financial instruments clearing, settlement and custody services to clients, delayed receipts in funding and other Exposures arising from client activity which do not last longer than the following business day;
              (e) in the case of the services outlined in (d) intra-day Exposures to Financial Institutions who provide these services are excluded;
              (f) claims resulting from the purchase and sale of Securities during settlement where both the Authorised Firm and the Counterparty are up to five business days overdue in settling. The five business days include the due payment or due delivery date. After five business days, the claim becomes an Exposure; and
              (g) Exposures that are guaranteed by the Authorised Firms Parent in accordance with PIB Rule 4.15.18.
              (2) For the purposes of this section, Exposure to a CCP which carry a 0% CCR in accordance with PIB section 4.8 are excluded.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 4.15.9

            An Authorised Firm need not include fully exempt Exposures, as referred to in PIB Rule A4.11.1 when monitoring compliance with the limits in Rules PIB 4.15.5, PIB 4.15.6 and PIB 4.15.7.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Institutional Exemption

            • PIB 4.15.10

              For Exposures to a Financial Institution, or a group of Connected Counterparties one of which is a Financial Institution, the total amount of an Authorised Firm's Exposures may exceed 25% of its Capital Resources, provided those institutions are Investment Grade (Credit Quality Grades 1 to 3) and subject to the following:

              (a) Exposures to any entities within the group of Connected Counterparties that are not Financial Institutions are limited to 25% of Capital Resources after taking account of Credit Risk mitigation;
              (b) the Exposures must not form part of the Capital Resources of the Counterparty;
              (c) the Counterparty Risk profile must be subject to review on at least an annual basis; and
              (d) Exposures of this nature must not in any case exceed a maximum of US$ 100 million or 100% of Capital Resources, whichever is the lower.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.15.10 Guidance

                The DFSA will, in exceptional circumstances, consider an application to waive or modify the limits set out above. In such circumstances the Authorised Firm will have to make a submission to the DFSA as to why its specific circumstances would warrant a relaxation of the limits specified in (d) above.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Systems and Controls

            • PIB 4.15.11

              (1) An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain systems and controls to identify its Exposures and effectively manage Concentration Risks as a result of its activities.
              (2) Such systems and controls in place must be proportionate to the nature, scale and complexity of the Authorised Firm and must include written policies and procedures to address Concentration Risks, both on and off balance sheet, which:
              (a) are approved by the Governing Body on at least an annual basis; and
              (b) include internal approval limits for Exposures as well as limits for the risks associated with specific sectors, geographic location and single economic risk factors.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.15.11 Guidance

                The DFSA expects the systems and controls to include:

                a. processes for the tiered approval of Exposures based on size, risk profile and complexity;
                b. mechanisms for identifying, recording and monitoring all Exposures with particular focus on Large Exposures;
                c. mechanisms in place for the monitoring and control of Exposures to Counterparties and Groups of Connected Counterparties;
                d. mechanisms for monitoring and recording Exposures within its Group;
                e. mechanisms to monitor Counterparties in the same economic sector and exposed to single economic risks;
                f. mechanisms to identify and control risks arising from single geographic jurisdictions; and
                g. mechanisms to identify risks arising from related activities or commodities.
                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Recognition of Credit Risk Mitigations

            • PIB 4.15.12

              For the purposes of this section, an Authorised Firm may reduce the value of its Exposures, at its discretion, by any one or more of the following:

              (a) the amount of any specific provision made, where the provision relates to the risk of a credit loss occurring on that Exposure and is not held as part of a general provision or reserve against its Credit Risks;
              (b) Netting its claims on and liabilities to a Counterparty, provided that the conditions in PIB section 4.13 of Credit Risk mitigation are met;
              (c) the amount of Collateral held against its Exposures, where that Collateral is of a type listed based on the FCSA and FCCA approaches and meeting the requirements under PIB section 4.13;
              (d) the amount of any eligible guarantees as permitted under PIB section 4.13.9;
              (e) the value of a Credit Derivative, where the Credit Derivative is an instrument included in PIB Rule 4.13.11 and the transaction meets the conditions set out in that section; and
              (f) the effects of transactions transferring Credit Risks from the Authorised Firm to another party through securitisation, provided that the conditions in PIB section 4.14 are met.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.13

              An Authorised Firm intending to utilise any of the provisions contained in PIB section 4.13 (Credit Risk mitigation) for the purposes of reducing Exposure values should have in place policies and procedures addressing the following:

              (a) risks arising from maturity mismatches between Exposures and any credit protection on those Exposures;
              (b) the Concentration Risk arising from the application of Credit Risk mitigation techniques, including indirect Large Exposures — for example to a single Issuer of Securities taken as Collateral; and
              (c) the conduct of stress testing on Credit Risk mitigation taken as Collateral.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.14

              Where an Authorised Firm has availed itself of the reductions to Exposure values as set out in PIB A4.11 the Authorised Firm must calculate the Exposure as a percentage of its Capital Resources on both a gross and net basis.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.15

              An Authorised Firm that avails itself of the reduction in its Exposure value through the application of PIB Rule A4.11 must conduct periodic stress tests on its Exposures against the realisable value of any Collateral considered under with the FCSA or FCCA.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.16

              Where the value of the Collateral under the stress scenario is lower than the value applied under PIB Rule 4.15.12 the lower value should be used when determining the Exposure value for the purposes of this section.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.15.16 Guidance

                Such stress tests should include market value changes of underlying Collateral, risks relating to liquidity and realisation of such Collateral in stress scenarios. An assessment of the impact of any such changes on the Exposure value and the capital position of the Authorised Firm should be conducted. Stress testing of these positions should be conducted at least once a year.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 4.15.17

              An Authorised Firm must document its policy for the use of any of the exclusions in PIB Rule 4.15.12.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

              • PIB 4.15.17 Guidance

                Such policy should include risks such as maturity mismatches, stress testing of Collateral values, indirect Exposures arising from Credit Risk mitigation, such as mitigation provided on Exposures by the same Counterparty.

                Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • Treatment of Parental Guarantees

            • PIB 4.15.18

              An Authorised Firm may exclude an Exposure from the Concentration Risk limits set out in Rules PIB 4.15.5 to PIB 4.15.7 if the Authorised Firm's Parent;

              (a) is set to increase, on the basis of a legally binding agreement, the Authorised Firm's Capital Resources, promptly and on demand, by:
              (i) an amount that is sufficient to reverse completely the effect of any loss the Authorised Firm may sustain in connection with that Exposure; or
              (ii) the amount required to ensure that the Authorised Firm complies with its Capital Requirement set out in PIB chapter 3; or
              (b) guarantees the Exposure to a Counterparty or to a group of Closely Related Counterparties which are not Connected to the Authorised Firm only if the following conditions are met:
              (i) the guarantee is to be provided by the Authorised Firm's Parent, or regulated member of its Group;
              (ii) the criteria for guarantees must be in line with the Credit Risk mitigation requirements as set out in PIB section 4.13;
              (iii) the entity providing the guarantee must be a bank regulated to standards acceptable to the DFSA;
              (iv) the total amount of guarantees provided to the Authorised Firm must be less than 10% of the Parent (or other) Authorised Firm's Capital Resources;
              (v) the Parent must be rated as a Credit Quality Grade of 1 or 2 by a recognised credit rating agency;
              (vi) the Authorised Firm must provide confirmation from the home state Financial Services Regulator that it is satisfied that the Parent Authorised Firm has sufficient resources to provide such guarantees and has no objection to the provision of such guarantees;
              (vii) the Authorised Firm should provide an annual confirmation that there are no changes to the enforceability of such guarantees; and
              (viii) the Authorised Firm must notify the DFSA when such guarantees represent 200%, 400% and 600% of Capital Resources. The overall Large Exposure limit of 800% will apply.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

    • PIB 5 Market Risk

      • Introduction

        • PIB 5 Guidance

          1. This chapter addresses the regulatory requirements in respect of managing the Market Risk exposures of an Authorised Firm. Market Risk refers to the risk of incurring losses on positions held by an Authorised Firm with trading intent, due to adverse changes in market prices or in underlying value drivers. This chapter aims to ensure that an Authorised Firm engaging in activities exposing the firm to risks associated with potential adverse movements in market prices adopts appropriate and effective risk management practices and holds regulatory capital of the right quality that is also commensurate with the risks involved.
          2. This chapter includes requirements that an Authorised Firm:
          a. implement a comprehensive Market Risk management framework to manage, measure and monitor Market Risk commensurate with the nature, scale and complexity of the firm's operations; and
          b. calculate the Market Risk Capital Requirement and hold the same.
          3. The chapter allows the use of standard pre-defined methodologies for estimating the capital requirement and also allows the use of DFSA-approved internal models to calculate a firm's Market Risk Capital Requirement. The chapter covers Rules for determining Market Risk Capital Requirement on exposures involving interest rate risk, equity risk, foreign exchange risk, commodities risk, options risk, collective investment fund risk and securities underwriting risk.
          4. PIB Appendix 5 provides the detailed requirements, parameters, calculation methodologies and formulae in respect of the primary requirements outlined in PIB chapter 5. PIB Appendix 5 also provides detailed guidance on criteria for approval of internal models for calculation of Market Risk Capital Requirement, incorporation of incremental risk charges in internal models, if allowed and guidance on the required level of stress testing.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.1 Application

        • PIB 5.1.1

          This chapter applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5 as follows:

          (a) sections PIB 5.2 to PIB 5.11 apply to an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 2;
          (b) sections PIB 5.2 and PIB 5.6 apply to an Authorised Firm in Category 3A; and
          (c) sections PIB 5.2, PIB 5.3 and PIB 5.5 to PIB 5.11 apply to an Authorised Firm in Category 5.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 5.1.1 Guidance

            1. PIB Rule 5.3.1 provides that the Market Risk Capital Requirement of an Authorised Firm is calculated as the sum of a number of subsidiary Capital Requirements. Sections PIB 5.4 to PIB 5.10 set out the manner in which each of those subsidiary Capital Requirements must be calculated, monitored and controlled by an Authorised Firm.
            2. In addition to complying with the applicable Rules in PIB chapter 5, an Authorised Firm investing in or holding Islamic Contracts whether or not for the purpose of a PSIA will need to take account of the provisions under IFR Rules IFR 5.4.8 to IFR 5.4.14 to calculate the Market Risk for those Islamic Contracts.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.2 Market Risk Systems and Controls

        • PIB 5.2.1

          (1) An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5 must implement and maintain a Market Risk policy which enables it to identify, assess, control and monitor Market Risk.
          (2) The policy must be documented and include the Authorised Firm's risk appetite and how it identifies, assesses, mitigates, controls and monitors that risk.
          (3) An Authorised Firm must:
          (a) ensure that its risk management systems enable it to implement the Market Risk policy;
          (b) identify, assess, mitigate, control and monitor its Market Risk; and
          (c) review and update the policy at intervals that are appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its activities.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 5.2.1 Guidance

            Guidance in respect of what an Authorised Firm's Market Risk policy should include is provided in PIB section A5.1.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.3 Calculation of the Market Risk Capital Requirement

        • PIB 5.3.1

          An Authorised Firm must calculate its Market Risk Capital Requirement as the sum of the following components:

          (a) Interest Rate Risk Capital Requirement;
          (b) Equity Risk Capital Requirement;
          (c) Foreign Exchange Risk Capital Requirement;
          (d) Commodities Risk Capital Requirement;
          (e) Option Risk Capital Requirement;
          (f) Collective Investment Fund Risk Capital Requirement; and
          (g) Securities Underwriting Capital Requirement.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 5.3.1 Guidance

            1. Detailed Rules and Guidance in respect of the Market Risk Capital Requirement and each of its components in (a) to (g) are contained in this chapter.
            2. Rules and Guidance in respect of calculating Market Risk for Islamic Contracts are contained in IFR chapter 5.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.4 Interest Rate Risk Capital Requirement

        • PIB 5.4.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 2 must calculate its Interest Rate Risk Capital Requirement in respect of Trading Book transactions:

          (a) by applying its internal Market Risk model which has been approved by the DFSA for this purpose; or
          (b) by applying the Rules set out in PIB section A5.2.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.5 Equity Risk Capital Requirement

        • PIB 5.5.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5, must calculate its Equity Risk Capital Requirement in respect of Trading Book transactions:

          (a) by applying its internal Market Risk Model which has been approved by the DFSA for this purpose; or
          (b) by applying the Rules set out in PIB section A5.3.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.6 Foreign Exchange Risk Capital Requirement

        • PIB 5.6.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5 must, subject to PIB Rule 5.6.2, calculate its Foreign Exchange Risk Capital Requirement in respect of Trading Book and Non-Trading Book foreign exchange positions by:

          (a) applying its internal Market Risk model which has been approved by the DFSA for this purpose; or
          (b) applying the Rules in PIB section A5.4.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.6.2

          An Authorised Firm need not calculate a Foreign Exchange Risk Capital Requirement if:

          (a) its Foreign Currency business, defined as the greater of the sum of its gross long positions and the sum of its gross short positions in all Foreign Currencies, does not exceed 100% of Capital Resources as defined in PIB chapter 3; and
          (b) its overall net open position as defined in PIB Rule A5.4.4 does not exceed 2% of its Capital Resources as defined in PIB chapter 3.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.7 Commodities Risk Capital Requirement

        • PIB 5.7.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 must calculate its Commodities Risk Capital Requirement in respect of Trading Book and Non-Trading Book commodity positions by:

          (a) applying its internal Market Risk model which has been approved by the DFSA for this purpose; or
          (b) applying the Rules set out in PIB section A5.5.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.8 Option Risk Capital Requirement

        • PIB 5.8.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 must calculate an Option Risk Capital Requirement if it has positions in Options in its Trading Book by:

          (a) applying its internally developed Market Risk model which has been approved by the DFSA for this purpose; or
          (b) by applying the Rules set out in PIB section A5.6.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.9 Collective Investment Fund Risk Capital Requirement

        • PIB 5.9.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 must calculate its Collective Investment Fund Risk Capital Requirement in respect of Trading Book positions in Units in a Collective Investment Fund by:

          (a) applying its internally developed Market Risk model which has been approved by the DFSA for this purpose; or
          (b) applying the Rules set out in PIB section A5.7.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.10 Securities Underwriting Capital Requirement

        • PIB 5.10.1

          This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 in respect of Trading Book Securities Underwriting positions.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 5.10.1 Guidance

            1. This section sets out a framework for calculating the amount of Capital Requirement when an Authorised Firm has commitments to underwrite an issue of Securities, and the associated risk management standards which an Authorised Firm Underwriting Securities must meet.
            2. Underwriting is defined in the Glossary as an arrangement under which a party agrees to buy, before issue, a specified quantity of Securities in an issue of Securities on a given date and at a given price, if no other party has purchased or acquired them.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.10.2

          An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain such systems and controls to monitor and manage its Underwriting and sub-underwriting business as are appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its Underwriting and sub-underwriting business.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 5.10.2 Guidance

            1. An Authorised Firm should take reasonable steps to:
            a. allocate responsibility for the management of its Underwriting and sub-underwriting business;
            b. allocate adequate resources of the Authorised Firm to monitor and control its Underwriting and sub-underwriting business;
            c. satisfy itself that its systems to monitor its Exposure to a Counterparty will calculate, revise and update its Underwriting Exposure to each Counterparty and its Capital Requirements;
            d. satisfy itself of the suitability of each person who performs functions for it in connection with the Authorised Firm's Underwriting business, having regard to the person's skill and experience; and
            e. satisfy itself that its procedures and controls to monitor and manage its Underwriting business address the capacity of sub-underwriters to meet sub-underwriting commitments.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.10.3

          (1) An Authorised Firm must calculate a Securities Underwriting Capital Requirement if it has a commitment to underwrite or sub-underwrite an issue of Securities.
          (2) An Authorised Firm has a commitment to underwrite or sub-underwrite an issue of Securities where:
          (a) it gives a commitment to an Issuer of Securities to underwrite an issue of Securities;
          (b) it gives a commitment to sub-underwrite an issue of Securities; or
          (c) it is a member of a syndicate or Group that gives a commitment to an Issuer to underwrite an issue of Securities or a commitment to sub-underwrite an issue of Securities.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.10.4

          An Authorised Firm must regard a commitment to underwrite an issue of Securities, subject to any right set out in PIB Rule 5.10.6, as the initial commitment to underwrite from the earlier of:

          (a) the time the Authorised Firm signs an agreement with the Issuer of Securities to underwrite those Securities; or
          (b) the time the price and allocation of the issue are set.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.10.5

          Where the issue price has not been fixed, an Authorised Firm must use the highest estimate of the price and its allocation for the purpose of calculating its initial gross commitment.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.10.6

          If an Authorised Firm has at its discretion an irrevocable right to withdraw from an Underwriting commitment, exercisable within a certain period, the commitment commences when that right expires.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.10.7

          An Authorised Firm must calculate its Securities Underwriting Risk Capital Requirement by:

          (a) applying its internally developed Market Risk model which has been approved by the DFSA for this purpose; or
          (b) applying the Rules in PIB section A5.8.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 5.11 Use of Internal Market Risk Models

        • PIB 5.11.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 may use an internal model to calculate its Market Risk Capital Requirement or any components of its Market Risk Capital Requirement if its internal model and its use have been approved in writing by the DFSA.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 5.11.1 Guidance

            Guidance in respect of criteria for use of internally developed Market Risk models is provided in PIB section A5.9.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.11.2

          If the DFSA approves the use of an internal model, it may:

          (a) impose, withdraw or amend at any time conditions in respect of the use of the internal model; and
          (b) withdraw approval if it forms the view that the internal model or its use is no longer suitable for the calculation of the Authorised Firm's Market Risk Capital Requirement or any component of it.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.11.3

          An Authorised Firm which uses an internal model in accordance with PIB Rule 5.11.1 must have in place a rigorous and comprehensive stress-testing programme which meets the criteria set out in PIB Rule A5.9.4.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 5.11.4

          An Authorised Firm that has received approval for the use of an internal model may only revert to calculating its Market Risk Capital Requirement or any component of it in accordance with PIB App5 with the prior written consent of the DFSA.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 5.11.4 Guidance

            1. This section sets out the conditions under which an Authorised Firm is permitted to use an internal model to calculate its Market Risk Capital Requirement or any component of its Market Risk Capital Requirement. An Authorised Firm that wishes to use an internal model to calculate any part of this requirement is required to apply to the DFSA. Internal models will commonly permit more extensive Netting of long and short positions and have greater risk sensitivity.
            2. In assessing whether to give approval, the DFSA will consider an Authorised Firm's risk management standards; the quantitative model standards; the stress-testing and back-testing standards and the process surrounding the calculation of the appropriate regulatory Capital Requirement.
            3. The DFSA will usually only give its approval for the use of an internal risk model if:
            a. the use of the model to calculate the Market Risk Capital Requirement has been approved by another appropriate regulator or the DFSA is satisfied having been provided by the Authorised Firm with such opinions from independent experts as it may require, that the model adequately addresses Market Risk requirements;
            b. use of the methodology is integrated into the governance and control framework of the Authorised Firm. Specifically, the Governing Body and senior management of the Authorised Firm receives and reviews appropriate reports in respect of the entity;
            c. it is satisfied that the Authorised Firm's risk management system is conceptually sound and is implemented with integrity;
            d. the Authorised Firm has sufficient numbers of staff skilled in the use of sophisticated models not only in the trading area but also in the risk control, audit, and if necessary, back office areas;
            e. the Authorised Firm's models have a proven track record of reasonable accuracy in measuring risk; and
            f. the Authorised Firm regularly conducts stress tests.
            4. In determining whether an internal value at risk (VaR) model meets the standard for approval, the DFSA will apply the criteria set out in PIB section A5.9, which are based on the Basel Market Risk Capital Amendment 1996 and Basel Revisions to the Basel II Market Risk framework 2009 and which can be grouped under the following headings:
            a. qualitative standards;
            b. specification of Market Risk factors;
            c. quantitative standards;
            d. adjustments to Market Risk Capital Requirements;
            e. stress testing; and
            f. combination of internally developed models and the Standardised Methodology.
            5. In addition to value-at-risk models, the DFSA recognises option risk aggregation models and interest rate 'pre-processing' or sensitivity models, as set out under the EU's Capital Adequacy Directive (these are the so-called 'CAD1 models').
            6. Option risk aggregation models analyse and aggregate options risks for interest rate, equity, foreign exchange and commodity options.
            7. Interest rate pre-processing models are used to calculate weighted positions for inclusion in an Authorised Firm's interest rate Market Risk Capital Requirement calculation under the Duration Method.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

    • PIB 6 Operational Risk

      • Introduction

        • PIB 6 Guidance

          1. This chapter includes the detailed Rules and associated guidance in respect of a firm's obligation to manage effectively its exposures to Operational Risk. Operational Risk refers to the risk of incurring losses due to the failure of systems, processes, and personnel to perform expected tasks. Operational Risk losses also include losses arising out of legal risk. This chapter aims to ensure that an Authorised Firm has a robust Operational Risk management framework commensurate with the nature, scale and complexity of its operations and that it holds sufficient regulatory capital against Operational Risk exposures.
          2. This chapter requires an Authorised Firm to:
          a. design and implement an effective Operational Risk management system complete with appropriate systems and controls;
          b. calculate the Operational Risk Capital Requirement and hold the same; and
          c. hold adequate professional indemnity insurance cover.
          3. This chapter includes, among others, specific Operational Risk management requirements relating to IT systems, information security, outsourcing, business continuity and disaster recovery and the management of Operational Risks in trading rooms.
          4. PIB Appendix 6 provides the detailed requirements, parameters, calculation methodologies and formulae for calculating the Operational Risk Capital Requirement specified in PIB chapter 6.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.1 Application

        • PIB 6.1.1

          This chapter applies to an Authorised Firm as follows:

          (a) Sections PIB 6.1 to PIB 6.9 apply to an Authorised Firm in any Category;
          (b) Sections PIB 6.10 and PIB 6.11 apply only to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5;
          (c) PIB section 6.12 applies only to an Authorised Firm in Category 3B, 3C or 4 which undertakes one or more of the following Financial Services:
          (i) Arranging Deals in Investments;
          (ii) Managing Assets;
          (iii) Advising on Financial Products;
          (iv) Managing a Collective Investment Fund;
          (v) Providing Custody;
          (vi) Insurance Intermediation;
          (vii) Insurance Management;
          (viii) Managing a Profit Sharing Investment Account (unrestricted);
          (ix) Providing Trust Services;
          (x) Providing Fund Administration;
          (xi) Acting as the Trustee of a Fund;
          (xii) Arranging Credit and Advising on Credit; or
          (xiii) Operating a Crowdfunding Platform
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM188/2016 (Made 7th December 2016). [VER26/02-17]
          [Amended] DSFA RM203/2017 (Made 14th June 2017). [VER28/08-17]

          • PIB 6.1.1 Guidance

            GEN section 5.3 of the GEN Module contains Rules and Guidance in relation to Systems and Controls, some of which may relate to the management of Operational Risk. The Corporate Governance rules in the GEN module set out overarching requirements in relation to Board responsibilities, including risk management. The Rules and Guidance in this section seek to complement the aforementioned requirements, while providing for a framework to address matters which directly relate to Operational Risk management.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.2 Risk Management Framework and Governance

        • PIB 6.2.1

          (1) An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain an Operational Risk policy which enables it to identify, assess, control and monitor Operational Risk.
          (2) The policy must be documented and provide for a sound and well-defined risk management framework to address the Authorised Firm's Operational Risk.
          (3) An Authorised Firm must:
          (a) ensure that its risk management systems enable it to implement the Operational Risk policy;
          (b) identify, assess, mitigate, control and monitor the risk; and
          (c) review and update the policy at intervals that are appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its activities.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 6.2.2

          An Authorised Firm must ensure that its Governing Body approves the Operational Risk policy in PIB Rule 6.2.1.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 6.2.2 Guidance

            1. Some of the key aspects that an Authorised Firm should consider in its Operational Risk policy include:
            a. the governance structures used to manage Operational Risk, including reporting lines and accountabilities;
            b. risk assessment tools and how they are used;
            c. the Authorised Firm's accepted Operational Risk appetite, permissible thresholds or tolerances for inherent and residual risk, and approved risk mitigation strategies and instruments;
            d. the Authorised Firm's approach to establishing and monitoring thresholds or tolerances for inherent and residual risk Exposure;
            e. risk reporting and MIS; and
            f. appropriate independent review and assessment of the Authorised Firm's Operational Risk framework.
            2. An Authorised Firm's Operational Risk policy should, amongst other things, include consideration of Principles for the Sound Management of Operational Risk, issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and the Guidelines on the management of Operational Risk in market-related activities issued by the European Banking Authority which are useful in relation to activities other than banking.

            Governing Body Responsibilities

            1. The GEN Module contains Rules and Guidance regarding corporate governance requirements for Authorised Firms, including the responsibilities of an Authorised Firm regarding risk management.
            2. In developing, implementing and maintaining an effective Operational Risk framework, an Authorised Firm's Governing Body should:
            a. approve and review a risk appetite and tolerance for Operational Risk that articulates the nature, types and levels of Operational Risk that the Authorised Firm is willing to assume;
            b. consider all relevant risks, the Authorised Firm's level of risk appetite, its current financial condition and its strategic direction. The Governing Body should monitor management adherence to the risk appetite and tolerance and provide for timely detection and remediation of breaches;
            c. encourage a management culture, and develop supporting processes, which help to engender within the Authorised Firm an understanding by relevant Employees of the nature and scope of the Operational Risk inherent in the Authorised Firm's strategies and activities;
            d. provide senior management with clear guidance and direction regarding the principles underlying the Authorised Firm's Operational Risk management framework and approve the corresponding policies developed by senior management;
            e. regularly review the Authorised Firm's Operational Risk policy to ensure that the Authorised Firm has identified and is managing the Operational Risk arising from external market changes and other environmental factors, as well as those Operational Risks associated with new strategies, products, activities, or systems, including changes in risk profiles and priorities (e.g. changing business volumes). Such review should also take into account the Operational Risk loss experience, the frequency, volume or nature of limit breaches, the quality of the control environment and the effectiveness of risk management or mitigation strategies;
            f. ensure that the Authorised Firm's Operational Risk policy and framework is subject to effective independent review by audit or other appropriately-trained Persons;
            g. ensure that management is incorporating industry best practice in managing Operational Risk; and
            h. establish clear lines of management responsibility and accountability for implementing a strong control environment. The control environment should provide appropriate independence/separation of duties between Operational Risk control functions, business lines and support functions.

            Senior Management Responsibilities

            1. GEN 5.2 contains Rules and Guidance regarding senior management arrangements for Authorised Firms.
            2. In relation to establishing and maintaining a robust Operational Risk framework, an Authorised Firm's senior management should:
            a. translate the Operational Risk management framework established by the Governing Body into specific policies and procedures that can be implemented and verified within the different business units;
            b. clearly assign authority, responsibility and reporting relationships to encourage and maintain accountability, and to ensure that the necessary resources are available to manage Operational Risk in line within the Authorised Firm's risk appetite and tolerance; and
            c. ensure that the management oversight process is appropriate for the risks inherent in a business unit's activity.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.3 Risk Identification and Assessment

        • PIB 6.3.1

          An Authorised Firm must:

          (a) ensure that it identifies and assesses the Operational Risks inherent in all the Authorised Firm's products, activities, processes and systems;
          (b) ensure the inherent risks in (a) are understood by relevant Employees of the Authorised Firm;
          (c) systematically track Operational Risk events and any financial impact associated with such events; and
          (d) ensure that the tracking in (c) is consistent with the Operational Risk event types described in the Basel III framework.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 6.3.1 Guidance

            1. An Authorised Firm should record all Operational Risk events, including near misses and events which result in a positive financial outcome.
            2. These Rules complement related Rules in GEN section 5.3 relating to risk management systems and controls. For example, GEN Rule 5.3.6 requires an Authorised Firm to appoint an individual to advise its Governing Body and senior management as to risks.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 6.3.2

          An Authorised Firm must ensure that its Operational Risk policy in PIB Rule 6.2.1:

          (a) includes an approval process for all new products, activities, processes and systems; and
          (b) incorporates the requirement in PIB Rule 6.3.1(a).
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 6.3.2 Guidance

            1. An Authorised Firm should have policies and procedures that address the process for review and approval of new products, activities, processes and systems. The review and approval process should include consideration of:
            a. inherent risks in any new product, service, or activity;
            b. resulting changes to the Authorised Firm's Operational Risk profile, appetite and tolerance, including changes to the risk of existing products or activities;
            c. necessary controls, risk management processes, and risk mitigation strategies;
            d. residual risk;
            e. changes to relevant risk limits;
            f. procedures and metrics to measure, monitor, and manage the risk of the new product or activity; and
            g. appropriate investment in human resources and technology infrastructure.
            2. Tools that an Authorised Firm may employ for identifying and assessing Operational Risk include:
            a. internal loss data collection and analysis;
            b. external data collection and analysis;
            c. risk assessments;
            d. business process mapping;
            e. risk and performance indicators; and
            f. scenario analysis.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.4 Risk Monitoring and Reporting

        • PIB 6.4.1

          An Authorised Firm must:

          (a) regularly monitor material Exposures to Operational Risk losses;
          (b) ensure that appropriate reporting mechanisms are in place at its Governing Body, senior management, and business line levels to support effective management of the Authorised Firm's Operational Risk; and
          (c) immediately notify the DFSA of any material Operational Risk event including notification of any resulting financial impact, positive or negative, associated with such event.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 6.4.1 Guidance

            1. GEN Rule 5.3.17 requires an Authorised Person to establish and maintain arrangements to provide its Governing Body and senior management with the information necessary to organise and control its activities, to comply with legislation applicable in the DIFC and to manage risks.
            2. PIB Rule 6.4.1 is intended to complement GEN Rule 5.3.17 and requires Authorised Firms to establish and maintain reporting mechanisms specifically addressing the Operational Risk matters.
            3. The frequency of internal reporting of Operational Risks required by PIB Rule 6.4.1(b) should reflect the risks involved and the pace and nature of changes in the Authorised Firm's operating environment.
            4. The following lists some of the items that an Authorised Firm should consider including in its internal reporting of Operational Risks:
            a. the results of monitoring activities;
            b. assessments of the Operational Risk framework performed by control functions such as internal audit, compliance, risk management and/or external audit;
            c. reports generated by (and/or for) supervisory authorities;
            d. material breaches of the Authorised Firm's risk appetite and tolerance with respect to Operational Risk;
            e. details of recent significant internal Operational Risk events and losses, including near misses or events that resulted in a positive return; and
            f. relevant external events and any potential impact on the Authorised Firm and its Operational Risk framework, including Operational Risk capital.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.5 Control and Mitigation

        • PIB 6.5 Guidance

          1. GEN Rule 5.3.1 requires an Authorised Person to establish and maintain systems and controls, including but not limited to financial and risk systems and controls that ensure that its affairs are managed effectively and responsibly by its senior management.
          2. In complying with GEN Rule 5.3.1, an Authorised Firm should establish and maintain a strong control environment that uses policies, processes and systems, appropriate internal controls and appropriate risk mitigation and/or transfer strategies.
          3. In establishing systems and controls to address Operational Risk an Authorised Firm should consider the following:
          a. clear segregation of duties and dual control;
          b. clearly established authorities and/or processes for approval;
          c. close monitoring of adherence to assigned risk limits or thresholds;
          d. safeguards for access to, and use of, the Authorised Firm's assets and records;
          e. appropriate staffing level and training to maintain expertise;
          f. ongoing processes to identify business lines or products where returns appear to be out of line with reasonable expectations; and
          g. regular verification and reconciliation of transactions and accounts.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.6 Information Technology (IT) Systems

        • PIB 6.6.1

          An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain:

          (a) appropriate information technology policies and processes to identify, assess, monitor and manage technology risks; and
          (b) appropriate and sound information technology infrastructure to meet its current and projected business requirements, under normal circumstances and in periods of stress, which ensures data and system integrity, security and availability and supports integrated and comprehensive risk management.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 6.6.1 Guidance

            1. IT systems include the computer systems and information technology infrastructure required for the automation of processes and systems, such as application software, operating system software, network infrastructure, and desktop, server and mainframe hardware.
            2. An Authorised Firm should consider the following in establishing its systems and controls for the management of IT system risks:
            a. governance and oversight controls that ensure technology, including outsourcing arrangements, is aligned with and supportive of the Authorised Firm's business objectives;
            b. an Authorised Firm's organisation and reporting structure for technology operations, including adequacy of senior management oversight; and
            c. the appropriateness of the systems acquisition, development and maintenance activities, including the allocation of responsibilities between IT development and operational areas.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.7 Information Security

        • PIB 6.7.1

          An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain appropriate systems and controls to manage its information security risk.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 6.7.1 Guidance

            In establishing its systems and controls to address information security risks, an Authorised Firm should have regard to:

            a. confidentiality: information should be accessible only to persons or systems with appropriate authority, which may require firewalls within a system, as well as entry restrictions;
            b. the risk of loss or theft of customer data;
            c. integrity: safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information and its processing;
            d. non-repudiation and accountability: ensuring that the person or system that processed the information cannot deny their actions; and
            e. internal security: including premises security, staff vetting; access rights and portable media, staff internet and email access, encryption, safe disposal of customer data, and training and awareness.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.8 Outsourcing

        • PIB 6.8.1

          An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain appropriate systems and controls to manage its outsourcing risk.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 6.8.1 Guidance

            1. GEN Rules GEN 5.3.21 and GEN 5.3.22 set out the DFSA requirements on outsourcing by Authorised Firms. This section complements the requirements in the GEN module and contains guidance on managing the Operational Risk associated with outsourcing arrangements.
            2. The assessment of outsourcing risk at an Authorised Firm may depend on several factors, including the scope and materiality of the outsourced activity, how well the Authorised Firm manages, monitors and controls outsourcing risk (including its general management of Operational Risk), and how well the service provider manages and controls the potential risks of the operation.
            3. Factors that an Authorised Firm should consider in establishing outsourcing arrangements include the following:
            a. the financial, reputational and operational impact on the Authorised Firm of the failure of a service provider to perform adequately the activity;
            b. potential losses to an Authorised Firm's customers and counterparts in the event of a service provider failure;
            c. the consequences of outsourcing the activity on the ability and capacity of the Authorised Firm to conform with regulatory requirements and changes in such requirements;
            d. the interrelationship of the outsourced activity with other activities within the Authorised Firm;
            e. the cost associated with the outsourcing;
            f. any affiliation or other relationship between the Authorised Firm and the service provider;
            g. the regulatory status of the service provider;
            h. the degree of difficulty and time required to select an alternative service provider or to bring the business activity in-house, if necessary;
            i. the complexity of the outsourcing arrangement. For example, the ability to control the risks where more than one service provider collaborates to deliver an end-to-end outsourcing solution; and
            j. any data protection, security and other risks which may be adversely affected by the geographical location of an outsourcing service provider. To this end, Specific Risk management expertise in assessing country risk related, for example, to political or legal conditions, could be required when entering into and managing outsourcing arrangements that are taken outside of the home country.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.9 Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery

        • PIB 6.9 Guidance

          See GEN chapter 5 regarding requirements relating to an Authorised Firm's business continuity and disaster recovery arrangements.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.10 Management of Operational Risks in Trading Activities

        • PIB 6.10 Guidance

          This section complements the Rules and Guidance set out in other sections of this chapter with more specific guidance for the identification, assessment, control and monitoring of Operational Risks in trading activities. In this Guidance, reference to "trading activities" should be construed in its natural sense in the context of Financial Services and should include an Authorised Firm's activities in Dealing in Investments as Principal and Dealing in Investments as Agent. In addressing the Operational Risks arising from trading activities, an Authorised Firm should consider the following:

          a. staff members in support and control functions, comprising functions such as operations, settlement, finance, risk management, legal, compliance, internal and external audit, should have adequate representation and authority within the Authorised Firm's overall governance framework so as to be able to effectively challenge the activities undertaken by the front office;
          b. Operational Risk management systems should set criteria, indicators and thresholds enabling the identification of material incidents detected by internal control procedures. This should include tracking of Operational Risk losses in trading activities and analysis of those losses for possible interconnections (i.e. losses based on one event or root cause);
          c. high professional standards and a sound risk culture should be promoted within the Authorised Firm, particularly in the front office, in a way that supports professional and responsible behaviour. This should include, but is not limited to, developing and implementing appropriate policies and procedures, setting standards (often in the form of a "code of conduct") for relations between traders and their counterparts, and training procedures;
          d. there should be adequate segregation of duties between front office and the support and controls functions in charge of supporting, verifying and monitoring trade transactions;
          e. appropriate policies and procedures relating to leave requirements and staff movements should be developed, implemented and regularly monitored; in particular:
          i. procedures establishing a minimum absence requirement of at least two consecutive weeks' leave for traders (via a vacation, "desk holiday" or other absence from the office or trading) so that traders are physically unable to mark or value their own books, this responsibility being carried out by a different person during those periods; and
          ii. employees changing job positions between front, middle and back offices or IT should be properly tracked.
          f. terms of reference describing the activity of each trader or group of traders should be established. Adherence to these terms should be subject to monitoring by support and control functions;
          g. documentation requirements for trading activities should be properly defined so as to minimise legal uncertainties in enforceability of contracts with clients and Counterparties. This should include consideration of using contracts that are standardised as far as possible, particularly in OTC transactions;
          h. all trading positions, profits and losses, cash flows and calculations associated with a transaction should be clearly recorded in the Authorised Firm's management information systems with a documented audit trail. The audit trail should allow for the tracing of cash flows at a sufficiently granular level (e.g. traders, books, products and portfolios);
          i. appropriate procedures for confirmation of the terms and conditions of transactions with external Counterparties/clients should be established;
          j. appropriate processes and procedures should be implemented for the settlement of transactions. This should include consideration of the following elements.
          i. the authorisation of inputs by the back office;
          ii. payment/settlements carried out against independent documents;
          iii. reconciliation between front office and back office systems; and
          iv. reconciliation procedures independent of the processing functions.
          k. controls should include daily reconciliation of positions and cash flows across various internal systems and external parties. The reconciliations should include all events attached to the transactions including amendments, cancellation, exercises, resets and expiries;
          l. procedures and processes should be established to ensure accurate and timely monitoring and follow up of margin or Collateral calls;
          m. profit attribution is a key control for understanding the risk in a trading operation and therefore the control and support functions should have a good understanding of the various aspects that lead to P&L generation, particularly in relation to more complex products. Major implausiblities discovered within the P&L in the context of the trading mandate and market developments should be further analysed to see if they are caused by Operational Risk events; and
          n. control procedures should be established to monitor and escalate unusual transactions, anomalies in confirmation and reconciliation processes, errors in recording, processing and settling transactions, along with cancellations, amendments, late trades and off-market rates.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.11 Operational Risk Capital Requirement

        • PIB 6.11.1

          This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 6.11.2

          (1) An Authorised Firm must, subject to (2), use the Basic Indicator Approach as prescribed in PIB App6 to calculate its Operational Risk Capital Requirement.
          (2) An Authorised Firm may, with the written approval of the DFSA, use the Standardised Approach or the Alternative Standardised Approach, both as prescribed in PIB App6, to calculate its Operational Risk Capital Requirement if the DFSA is satisfied that:
          (a) its Governing Body and senior management, as appropriate, are actively involved in the oversight of its Operational Risk framework;
          (b) it has, in accordance with the requirements set out in this chapter, implemented and maintains an Operational Risk policy which provides for a sound and well-defined risk management framework to address the Authorised Firm's Operational Risk; and
          (c) it has dedicated sufficient resources in the use of the relevant approach in its major business lines and its control and audit functions.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 6.11.3

          An Authorised Firm seeking to apply the Standardised Approach or the Alternative Standardised Approach must develop specific policies and have documented criteria for mapping gross income for current business lines and activities into the Standardised Approach or the Alternative Standardised Approach, as prescribed in PIB App6. The criteria must be reviewed and adjusted for new or changing business activities as appropriate.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 6.11.4

          Once an Authorised Firm has written approval to apply the Standardised Approach or Alternative Standardised Approach, it must not revert to the Basic Indicator Approach without DFSA approval.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 6.11.5

          (1) The DFSA may at any time by written notice require an Authorised Firm to adopt a specified approach to calculating its Operational Risk Capital Requirement where the DFSA considers that this is:
          (a) appropriate given the nature, size, complexity and risk profile of the Authorised Firm's business; or
          (b) necessary in the prevailing economic circumstances and it is in the interests of the DIFC.
          (2) An Authorised Firm must comply with a requirement made under (1).
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 6.12 Professional Indemnity Insurance

        • PIB 6.12.1

          This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 3B, 3C or 4 which undertake one or more of the Financial Services prescribed in PIB Rule 6.1.1(c).

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 6.12.2

          An Authorised Firm must:

          (a) take out and maintain professional indemnity insurance cover appropriate to the nature, size, complexity and risk profile of the Authorised Firm's business;
          (b) at least annually, provide the DFSA with a copy of the professional indemnity insurance cover in (a) covering the following twelve month period; and
          (c) notify the DFSA of any material changes to the cover in (a), including the level of cover, its renewal or termination.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 6.12.2 Guidance

            1. In complying with PIB Rule 6.12.2, an Authorised Firm should take out and maintain a contract for professional indemnity insurance (PII) from a reputable and well-capitalised insurer and such contract should include cover in respect of claims for which the Authorised Firm may be liable as a result of the conduct of itself and its Employees and appropriate cover in respect of legal costs arising from a claim.
            2. Pursuant to PIB Rule 6.4.1(c), an Authorised Firm should notify the DFSA of any significant PII claim made. What amounts to a significant claim will depend on the nature size and complexity of the Authorised Firm and the DFSA would expect the Authorised Firm to treat a series of small single claims which are significant in aggregate as significant for the purposes of PIB Rule 6.4.1(c).
            3. An Authorised Firm can fulfil the requirements under this section by ensuring coverage of its activities under a group-wide PII policy, provided that policy covers the Authorised Firm and its activities and that policy meets the conditions specified in this section. Where the Authorised Firm's group PII cover does not meet the requirements specified under this section, the Authorised Firm will be required to obtain PII cover that meets those requirements.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

    • PIB 7 Interest Rate Risk in the Non-Trading Book

      • Introduction

        • PIB 7 Guidance

          1. This chapter relates to interest rate risk in the Non-Trading Book. In relation to the Trading Book, an Interest Rate Risk Capital Requirement is imposed as a component of the Market Risk Capital Requirement under PIB chapter 5.
          2. Non-Trading Book interest rate risk is normally a major source of risk for a bank or a firm that deals on its own account (including underwriting on a firm commitment basis) and whose Non-Trading Book assets equal or exceed 15% of its total assets. Interest rate risk in the Non-Trading Book may arise from a number of sources, for example:
          a. risks related to the mismatch of repricing of assets and liabilities and off balance sheet short and long-term positions;
          b. risks arising from hedging exposure to one interest rate with exposure to a rate which reprices under slightly different conditions;
          c. risks related to the uncertainties of occurrence of transactions, for example, when expected future transactions do not equal the actual transactions; and
          d. risks arising from consumers redeeming fixed rate products when market rates change.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 7.1 Application

        • PIB 7.1.1

          This chapter applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 2 on a solo basis.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 7.1.2

          Where an Authorised Firm to which this chapter applies is part of a Financial Group, this chapter also applies on a consolidated basis in relation to all the entities within the Financial Group.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 7.2 Stress Testing for Non-Trading Book Interest Rate Risk

        • PIB 7.2.1

          An Authorised Firm must carry out an evaluation of its Exposure to the interest rate risk arising from its Non-Trading Book activities. An Authorised Firm with balance sheet positions in different currencies must measure its risk Exposures in each of the material currencies.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 7.2.2

          (1) The evaluation under PIB Rule 7.2.1 must cover the effect of a sudden and unexpected parallel change in interest rates of 200 basis points in both directions.
          (2) An Authorised Firm must apply a 200 basis point shock to each material currency Exposure it faces as part of its Non-Trading Book.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 7.2.3

          An Authorised Firm must immediately notify the DFSA if any evaluation under this section suggests that, as a result of the change in interest rates described in PIB Rule 7.2.2, the economic value of the firm would decline by more than 20% of its Capital Resources.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 7.2.3 Guidance

            For the purposes of PIB Rule 7.2.1, an Authorised Firm should consider each currency accounting for 5% or more of its Non-Trading Book assets or Non-Trading book liabilities as a material currency Exposure.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 7.2.4 Frequency of Stress Testing

          An Authorised Firm must carry out the evaluations required by PIB Rule 7.2.1 as frequently as necessary for it to be reasonably satisfied that it has at all times a sufficient understanding of the degree to which it is exposed to the risks referred to in that PIB Rule and the nature of that Exposure. In any case it must carry out those evaluations no less frequently than required by PIB Rule 7.2.6.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 7.2.5

          In order to carry out effectively the stress testing requirements specified in PIB Rule 7.2.2, an Authorised Firm must include appropriate scenarios into its stress testing programmes for measuring its vulnerability to loss arising from the impact of adverse interest rate movements on its Non-Trading Book structure.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 7.2.6

          (1) Subject to (2), the minimum frequency of the evaluation referred to in PIB Rule 7.2.1 is once each year.
          (2) The minimum frequency of an evaluation of the effect of a sudden and unexpected parallel change in interest rates as referred to in PIB Rule 7.2.2 is once each quarter.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 7.2.6 Guidance

            For the purposes of PIB Rule 7.2.6, an Authorised Firm should consider the standards for stress testing recommended in the paper published by the Basel Committee for Banking Supervision — Principles for management and supervision of interest rate risk — in July 2004. In particular, an Authorised Firm should include the technical specifications of a standardised interest rate shock detailed in Annex 3 of that paper as part of its systems for measurement of interest rate risk in the Non-Trading Book.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 7.3 Non-Trading Book Interest Rate Risk Under Chapter 10

        • PIB 7.3.1

          In order to meet effectively the obligations specified under PIB chapter 10, which includes the need to address Non-Trading Book interest rate risk, an Authorised Firm is required to make a written record of its assessments made under Rules specified in PIB chapter 10.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 7.3.1 Guidance

            1. This PIB chapter 7 does not impose an explicit Capital Requirement relating to interest rate risk. Rather, the DFSA may impose an Individual Capital Requirement (ICR) under PIB chapter 10 where it is of the view that the Authorised Firm's Capital Requirement is insufficient to address adequately all its risks, and in particular its Exposure to interest rate risk in the Non-Trading Book.
            2. Sections PIB 10.3 and PIB 10.4 of PIB chapter 10 require an Authorised Firm to submit IRAP and ICAAP assessments to the DFSA within 4 months of the end of the firm's financial year. The provisions also require the firm to ensure the assessments are documented in writing and to retain the records for at least 6 years.
            3. An Authorised Firm's record of its approach to evaluating and managing interest rate risk in its Non-Trading Book, as part of its ICAAP should cover the following issues:
            a. the internal definition of, and boundary between, "Non-Trading Book " and "trading activities" in accordance with PIB chapter 2 and PIB App2;
            b. the definition of economic value and its consistency with the method used to value assets and liabilities (e.g. discounted cashflows);
            c. the size and the form of the different shocks to be used for internal calculations;
            d. the use of a dynamic and / or static approach in the application of interest rate shocks;
            e. the treatment of commonly called "pipeline transactions" (including any related hedging);
            f. the aggregation of multi-currency interest rate Exposures;
            g. the inclusion (or not) of non-interest bearing assets and liabilities (including capital and reserves);
            h. the treatment of current and savings accounts (i.e. the maturity attached to Exposures without a contractual maturity);
            i. the treatment of fixed rate assets (liabilities) where customers still have a right to repay (withdraw) early;
            j. the extent to which sensitivities to small shocks can be scaled up on a linear basis without material loss of accuracy (i.e. covering both convexity generally and the non-linearity of pay-off associated with explicit option products);
            k. the degree of granularity employed (for example, offsets within a time bucket); and
            l. whether all future cash flows or only principal balances are included.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 7.4 Systems and Controls for Non-Trading Book Interest Rate Risk

        • Non-Trading Book Interest Rate Risk Policy

          • PIB 7.4.1

            (1) An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain a policy which enables it to identify, assess, control and monitor its Non-Trading Book interest rate risk.
            (2) The policy must be documented and include an appropriate interest rate risk strategy as well as an enterprise-wide interest rate risk management framework appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its Non-Trading Book activities. The strategy and management framework must:
            (a) enable the Governing Body and senior management of the Authorised Firm to have an enterprise-wide view of interest rate risk as it applies to non-trading activities;
            (b) include a system for identifying and assessing Non-Trading Book interest rate risk and its sources;
            (c) include a process for the measurement and monitoring of Non-Trading Book interest rate risk, using robust and consistent methods which enable the Authorised Firm to implement the requirements set out in Rules PIB 7.2.1 to PIB 7.2.6; and
            (d) include a system for controlling and managing Non-Trading Book interest rate risk which enables it to comply with the overall risk management standards expected of an Authorised Firm and ensure continued compliance with the Rules in PIB.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must identify the Non-Trading Book interest rate risk impact of any new product, activity or service that it proposes to start and ensure that such impacts are duly addressed with adequate controls before the new product or activity is undertaken or introduced.
            (4) An Authorised Firm must:
            (a) ensure that its risk management systems enable it to implement the Non-Trading Book interest rate risk policy;
            (b) identify, assess, mitigate, control and monitor the risk; and
            (c) review and update the policy at intervals that are appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its activities.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 7.4.1 Guidance

              1. The DFSA expects that an Authorised Firm's strategy towards Non-Trading Book interest rate risk will set out the approach that the Authorised Firm will take towards management of the risk, including various quantitative and qualitative targets. It should be communicated to all relevant functions and staff within the organisation and be set out in the Authorised Firm's Non-Trading Book interest rate risk policy.
              2. The DFSA expects that an Authorised Firm's framework for managing Non-Trading Book interest rate risk will address the following:
              a. the Non-Trading Book interest rate risk management framework should be integrated into the Authorised Firm's enterprise-wide risk management framework, including but not limited to integration with its daily risk management practices;
              b. the output of the risk measurement system which forms part of the Non-Trading Book interest rate risk management framework should be used in reporting the level of that risk to the senior management and Governing Body of the Authorised Firm;
              c. the measurement system should be capable of measuring the risk under the earnings approach. Depending on the scale and complexity of Non-Trading Book structure, the Authorised Firm may also need to measure the risk based on economic value approach;
              d. an Authorised Firm's Non-Trading Book interest rate risk measurement system should be clearly defined and consistent with the nature and complexity of its balance sheet structure;
              e. the processes, procedures and limits should be clearly documented and should reflect a consideration of the interest rate risk associated with the balance sheet structure of the Authorised Firm, considering various asset and liability positions. These processes, procedures and limits should be reviewed and approved by appropriate levels of senior management;
              f. the framework should involve an accurate, informative and timely management system for interest rate risk, which is essential to keep the senior management and the Governing Body of the Authorised Firm adequately informed to enable them to ensure compliance with the Non-Trading Book interest rate risk policy of the Authorised Firm; and
              g. the Non-Trading Book interest rate risk framework should include measures to consider balancing cash flows and management of the risk's impact from new products or services through hedging using swaps or other derivatives. Any such major hedging or risk management initiatives should be approved in advance by the Asset Liability Committee (ALCO) or the Governing Body of the Authorised Firm.
              3. The Non-Trading Book interest rate risk measurement systems referred to in PIB Rule 7.4.1(2)(c) should encompass all material drivers of the risk. Such systems should evaluate the effect of rate changes on earnings or economic value meaningfully and accurately within the context and complexity of their activities. They should be able to flag any excessive Exposures. An effective risk measurement system should address the following:
              a. evaluate all significant interest rate risk arising from the full range of an Authorised Firm's assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet positions, both trading and non-trading;
              b. ensure that an integrated view of interest rate risk across products and business lines is available to management, particularly when different measurement systems and methods are used across different business lines;
              c. employ generally accepted financial models and ways of measuring risk; and
              d. ensure accurate and timely data on all aspects related to current positions.
              4. Authorised Firms should measure their vulnerability to loss in stressed market conditions, including the breakdown of key assumptions, and consider those results when establishing and reviewing their policies and limits for interest rate risk. Possible stress scenarios for this exercise should include:
              a. historical scenarios such as the Asian Crisis in the late 1990s;
              b. changes in the general level of interest rates, e.g. changes in yields of 200 basis points or more in one year;
              c. changes in the relationships between key market rates (i.e. basis risk), e.g.
              i. a surge in term and savings deposit rates and benchmark rates like LIBOR but no change in the prime rate, and
              ii. a drop in the prime rate but no change in term and savings deposit rates and benchmark rates like LIBOR;
              d. changes in interest rates in individual time bands to different relative levels (i.e. yield curve risk);
              e. changes in the liquidity of key financial markets or changes in the volatility of market rates; and
              f. changes in key business assumptions and parameters such as the correlation between two currencies. In particular, changes in assumptions used for illiquid instruments and instruments with uncertain contractual maturities help understanding of an Authorised Firm's risk profile.
              5. An Authorised Firm should consider the standards for stress testing recommended in the paper published in July 2004 by the Basel Committee for Banking Supervision — Principles for management and supervision of interest rate risk — in developing the stress testing scenarios. In particular, an Authorised Firm should include the technical specifications of a standardised interest rate shock detailed in Annex 3 of that paper.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Responsibilities of Governing Body

          • PIB 7.4.3

            (1) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its Governing Body is responsible for monitoring the nature and level of Non-Trading Book interest rate risk assumed by the Authorised Firm and the process used to manage that risk.
            (2) Without limiting the operation of (1), the responsibilities of an Authorised Firm's Governing Body in respect of the risk include:
            (a) approving the Authorised Firm's Non-Trading Book interest rate risk policy, including its strategy and management framework;
            (b) establishing and maintaining a senior management structure for the management of the risk and for ensuring compliance with the Authorised Firm's risk strategy;
            (c) monitoring the Authorised Firm's overall Non-Trading Book interest rate risk profile on a regular basis and being aware of any material changes in the Authorised Firm's current or prospective profile; and
            (d) ensuring that Non-Trading Book interest rate risk is adequately identified, assessed, mitigated, controlled and monitored.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 7.4.3 Guidance

              1. The Governing Body of the Authorised Firm may delegate responsibility for establishing Non-Trading Book interest rate risk policies and strategies to the Asset and Liability Committee (ALCO) or an equivalent committee, which is the designated senior management committee for managing balance sheet structure and interest rate risk associated with it.
              2. An Authorised Firm involved in banking activities or complex principal dealing activities should have a designated committee for design and implementation of Non-Trading Book interest rate risk management.
              3. An Authorised Firm should establish and enforce operating limits and other practices that maintain Exposures within levels consistent with their internal policies and that accord with their approach to measuring the risk. In particular, Authorised Firms should set a limit on the extent to which floating rate Exposures are funded by fixed rate sources and vice versa to limit the risk. In floating rate lending, Authorised Firms should limit the extent to which they run any basis risk that may arise if lending and funding are not based on precisely the same market interest rate (e.g. LIBOR).
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

    • PIB 8 Group Risk

      • Introduction

        • PIB 8 Guidance

          1. This chapter deals with management of Group Risk exposure of an Authorised Firm. Group Risk refers to the risk of potential losses incurred by an Authorised Firm on account of its relationship with other members of its Financial Group, if it were to be part of one.
          2. This chapter includes requirements that an Authorised Firm implement:
          a. an effective management framework for Group Risk exposure;
          b. a specified methodology for the calculation of Financial Group Capital Resources and Financial Group Capital Requirements.
          3. This chapter also includes requirements limiting Financial Group exposures and restrictions on the ownership or control of deposit-taking firms.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 8.1 Application

        • PIB 8.1.1

          (1) This section and PIB section 8.5 apply to an Authorised Firm in any Category.
          (2) Sections PIB 8.2 to PIB 8.4 apply only to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 8.1.1 Guidance

            1. Group membership may be a source of both strength and weakness to an Authorised Firm. The purpose of Group Risk requirements is to ensure that an Authorised Firm takes proper account of the risks related to the Authorised Firm's membership of a Group. The Group Risk requirements form a key part of the DFSA's overall approach to prudential supervision.
            2. PIB section 8.5 imposes important restrictions on the ability of Authorised Firms in Category 3A, 3B, 3C or 4, and non-regulated Financial Institutions, to be a Parent of an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5, or of a firm carrying on similar activities outside of the DIFC.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Requirements by the DFSA

          • PIB 8.1.2

            (1) The DFSA may require an Authorised Firm to:
            (a) form a Financial Group with any other entity within its Group; or
            (b) include within its Financial Group any other entity within its Group;
            where the DFSA considers it necessary or desirable to do so in the interests of effective supervision of the Authorised Firm.
            (2) An Authorised Firm may, for the purposes of this section, exclude from its Financial Group any entity the inclusion of which would be misleading or inappropriate for the purposes of Financial Group supervision, provided the Authorised Firm has obtained the DFSA's prior written approval.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must provide to the DFSA, if requested, any of the following information in relation to its Group or Financial Group:
            (a) details as to the entities within the Group or Financial Group;
            (b) the structure of the Group or Financial Group; and
            (c) the systems and controls in place to manage Group Risk.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 8.1.2 Guidance

              1. If more than one member of the same Group is subject to an obligation to provide information in respect of a position of the Group or Financial Group, one or more of those Authorised Firms may make application to the DFSA for an appropriate waiver or modification.
              2. For the purposes of PIB Rule 8.1.2, the DFSA would consider a range of factors when requiring an Authorised Firm to form a Financial Group. These factors would include regulatory risk factors, including but not limited to, (direct and indirect) participation, influence or contractual obligations, interconnectedness, intra group exposures, intra group services, regulatory status and legal framework.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 8.2 Systems and Controls Requirements

        • PIB 8.2.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 that is a member of a Group must establish and maintain systems and controls for the purpose of:

          (a) monitoring the effect on the Authorised Firm of:
          (i) its relationship with other members of its Group;
          (ii) its membership in its Group; and
          (iii) the activities of other members of its Group;
          (b) monitoring compliance with Financial Group supervision requirements below, including systems for the production of relevant data;
          (c) monitoring funding within the Group; and
          (d) monitoring compliance with Financial Group reporting requirements.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 8.2.1 Guidance

            For the purposes of the above requirement, an Authorised Firm may take into account its position within its Group. For instance, it would be reasonable for a small Authorised Firm within a larger Group to place some reliance on its parent to ensure that appropriate systems and controls are in place.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 8.2.2

          (1) An Authorised Firm must have systems and controls to enable it to determine and monitor:
          (a) its Financial Group Capital Requirement; and
          (b) whether the amount of its Financial Group Capital Resources is, and is likely to remain, greater than the amount of its Financial Group Capital Requirement.
          (2) Such systems and controls must include an analysis of:
          (a) realistic scenarios which are relevant to the circumstances of the Financial Group; and
          (b) the effects on the Financial Group Capital Requirement and on the Financial Group Capital Resources if those scenarios occurred.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 8.3 Financial Group Capital Requirements and Financial Group Capital Resources

        • PIB 8.3 Guidance

          By PIB Rule 8.1.1(2), this section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 8.3.1

          (1) The other Rules in PIB section 8.3 do not apply to an Authorised Firm if:
          (a) the Authorised Firm's Financial Group is already the subject of Financial Group prudential supervision by the DFSA as a result of the authorisation of another Financial Group member;
          (b) the DFSA has confirmed in writing, in response to an application from the Authorised Firm, that it is satisfied that the Authorised Firm's Group is the subject of consolidated prudential supervision by an appropriate regulator; or
          (c) except where the DFSA has directed the inclusion of an entity pursuant to PIB Rule 8.1.2, the percentage of total assets of Authorised Firms and Financial Institutions in the Financial Group is less than 40% of the total Financial Group assets.
          (2) If an Authorised Firm receives confirmation in writing from the DFSA in accordance with (1)(b), it must immediately advise the DFSA in writing if the circumstances upon which the confirmation was based change.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 8.3.2

          An Authorised Firm must ensure at all times that its Financial Group Capital Resources, as calculated in PIB Rule 8.3.4, are equal to or in excess of its Financial Group Capital Requirement as calculated in PIB Rule 8.3.3.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 8.3.2 Guidance

            If an Authorised Firm breaches PIB Rule 8.3.2, the DFSA will take into account the full circumstances of the case, including any remedial steps taken by another regulator or the Authorised Firm, in determining what enforcement action, if any, it will take.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Financial Group Capital Requirement

          • PIB 8.3.3

            (1) An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 must calculate its Financial Group Capital Requirement by applying the accounting consolidation method, which calculates the Capital Requirement of the Financial Group based on the Financial Group's consolidated financial statements, and using applicable prudential Rules in PIB.
            (2) For the purposes of this Rule, the consolidated financial statements of the Financial Group must be prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Financial Group Capital Resources

          • PIB 8.3.4

            (1) An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 must calculate its Financial Group Capital Resources by applying either of the following methods, excluding those amounts referred to in PIB Rule 8.3.5:
            (a) the accounting consolidation method, which calculates the Capital Resources of the Financial Group based on the Financial Group's consolidated financial statements; or
            (b) the aggregation method, which is the sum of:
            (i) the Capital Resources of the Parent of the Financial Group;
            (ii) subject to (2), the Capital Resources of any Authorised Firms and Financial Institutions included in the Financial Group; and
            (iii) the Financial Group's proportionate share of Capital Resources in Financial Institutions not included in the Financial Group in which any member of the Financial Group has a participation.
            (2) For the purposes of (1)(b)(ii), an investment by one Financial Group member in another must not be included.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 8.3.4 Guidance

              The calculation of Financial Group Capital Resources is subject to the provisions in part 3 of PIB chapter 3.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 8.3.5

            When calculating the Financial Group Capital Resources of a Financial Group, an Authorised Firm must not include Capital Resources or Adjusted Capital Resources (as the case may be) of subsidiaries or participations of that Financial Group to the extent that those Capital Resources or Adjusted Capital Resources:

            (a) exceed the entity requirement in respect of that subsidiary or participation, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule 8.3.3; and
            (b) are not freely transferable within the Financial Group.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 8.3.5 Guidance

              1. Because the Financial Group Capital Requirement set out in PIB Rule 8.3.3 includes Capital Requirements in respect of Group entities, Capital Resources may be included in the calculation of Financial Group Capital Resources to the extent of those requirements. Capital that is surplus to those requirements is, however, subject to an additional condition before it may be taken into account for the purposes of Financial Group capital adequacy.
              2. In general, Capital Resources or Adjusted Capital Resources are considered not to be freely transferable if they are subject to a legal or constructive limitation on their transferability, whether that transfer would be made by dividend, return of capital or other form of distribution. Examples of relevant limitations might include obligations to maintain minimum Capital Requirements to meet domestic solvency requirements, or to comply with debt covenants.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 8.3.6

            Deductions for Qualifying Holdings under PIB section 3.17 may be calculated based on the Group's total T1 and T2 Capital.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 8.4 Financial Group Concentration Risk Limits

        • PIB 8.4.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 must ensure that its Financial Group Exposure, including the Financial Group's PSIAu's, to a Counterparty or group of Closely Related Counterparties does not exceed 25% of its Group's Capital Resources.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 8.4.2

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 must ensure that the sum of its Financial Group Large Exposures, including the Financial Group's PSIAu's, to a Counterparty or group of Closely Related Counterparties does not exceed 800% of its Financial Group's Capital Resources.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 8.5 Restrictions on Ownership or Control

        • PIB 8.5 Guidance

          By PIB Rule 8.1.1(1), this section applies to an Authorised Firm in any Category.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Parents of Category 1 and 5 Authorised Firms

          • PIB 8.5.1

            (1) No entity other than one of the following may be the Parent of, or any of the Parents of, an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5:
            (a) another Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5; or
            (b) a Regulated Financial Institution licensed to carry on the activities of accepting deposits.
            (2) An entity other than one referred to in (1)(a) or (b) may be the Parent of an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5 where the ultimate, or any intermediate, Parent is an entity of the type specified under 1(a) or (b).
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Restrictions on Category 3A, 3B, 3C and 4 Authorised Firms

          • PIB 8.5.2

            (1) An Authorised Firm in Category 3A, 3B, 3C or 4 must not, subject to (2), be a Parent of an entity that:
            (a) is an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5 or an Insurer; or
            (b) carries on activities that would, if conducted in the DIFC, constitute Accepting Deposits, Managing a PSIA which is a PSIAu, or Effecting or Carrying out Contracts of Insurance.
            (2) An Authorised Firm in Category 3A, 3B, 3C or 4 may own or control an entity referred to in (1) where it is itself a Subsidiary of:
            (a) a Regulated Financial Institution licensed to carry on any one or more of the activities specified in (1)(b); or
            (b) an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5 or an Insurer.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

    • PIB 9 Liquidity Risk

      • Introduction

        • PIB 9 Guidance

          1. This chapter deals with management of Liquidity Risk by an Authorised Firm. Liquidity Risk refers to the risk of potential losses incurred by an Authorised Firm's failure to have liquid assets to ensure payment of all its liabilities as they fall due and be in a position to meet all payments required to sustain its business on a planned growth path.
          2. This chapter requires an Authorised Firm to:
          a. maintain and implement a Liquidity Risk policy;
          b. identify, measure and monitor Liquidity Risk;
          c. maintain a minimum level of High Quality Liquid Assets (HQLA);
          d. determine quantitative limits on cumulative negative maturity mismatch in accordance with a specified methodology; and
          e. maintain a minimum Net Stable Funding Ratio.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
          [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 9.1 Application

        • PIB 9.1.1

          (1) This chapter applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5. (2) Only PIB Rule 9.2.2(3) applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 2.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 9.1.1 Guidance

            In accordance with Rules PIB 3.2.2 or PIB 3.2.4, an Authorised Firm is required to ensure that there is no significant risk that liabilities cannot be met as they fall due. With specific reference to liquidity, an Authorised Firm may meet its obligations in a number of ways, including:

            a. by holding sufficient immediately available cash or unencumbered readily marketable assets; and
            b. by securing an appropriate matching future profile of cashflows.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 9.2 Liquidity Risk policy, Systems and Controls

        • PIB 9.2.1

          (1) An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain a Liquidity Risk policy.
          (1A) An Authorised Firm must ensure the policy is in writing and is approved at least annually by its Governing Body.
          (1B) The policy must set out the level of Liquidity Risk the Authorised Firm is willing to tolerate, which must be in line with its business objectives, strategy and overall risk tolerance.
          (2) The policy must include systems and controls for intra-day daily, short-term, medium-term and long-term management of Liquidity Risk appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of the activities conducted by the firm.
          (3) The systems and controls referred to in (2) must include:
          (a) a system for identifying and assessing Liquidity Risk in accordance with PIB Rule 9.2.4.
          (b) a system for the measurement and monitoring of Liquidity Risk using a robust and consistent method which enables the Authorised Firm to implement the requirements set out in PIB Rule 9.2.5;
          (c) a system for controlling Liquidity Risk which enables the Authorised Firm to implement the requirements set out in PIB Rule 9.2.6;
          (d) a system for collateral management and asset encumbrance which is able to adequately identify, monitor and manage the risks associated with these activities in accordance with PIB Rule 9.2.8;
          (e) a system for adequate allocation of liquidity costs, benefits and risks that meets the requirements set out in PIB Rule 9.2.9; and;
          (f) a system to manage intra-day liquidity positions effectively and meet the requirements in PIB Rule 9.2.10.
          (4) An Authorised Firm must ensure that it has risk management systems to implement the policy.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
          [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 9.2.1 Guidance

            1. The DFSA expects that an Authorised Firm's Liquidity Risk policy will set out the approach that the Authorised Firm will take to Liquidity Risk management, including various quantitative and qualitative targets. It should be communicated to all relevant functions and staff within the organisation.
            2. The level of Liquidity Risk tolerance should ensure that the Authorised Firm manages its liquidity and funding risk prudently in normal times in a way that allows it to withstand periods of stress. The level of Liquidity Risk tolerance should be expressed in qualitative and quantitative terms that are clear enough for all levels of management to be able to understand the trade-off between risks and profits.
            3. The DFSA expects that an Authorised Firm will intergrate its Liquidity Risk policy within its overall risk management framework and that its policy will take into account the need to:
            a. develop liquidity management processes and procedures to implement the Authorised Firm's stated Liquidity Risk tolerance;
            b. ensure that the Authorised Firm maintains sufficient liquidity resources at all times to meet its ongoing liquidity obligations and withstand a period of individual or market-wide stress;
            c. determine the structure, responsibilities and controls for managing Liquidity Risk and for overseeing the liquidity positions of all branches and subsidiaries in the jurisdictions in which the Authorised Firm is active, and outline these elements clearly in the Authorised Firm's liquidity policies;
            d. have in place adequate internal controls to ensure the integrity of its Liquidity Risk management processes;
            e. ensure that stress tests, contingency funding plans and holdings of liquid assets are effective and appropriate for the Authorised Firm's business model, funding strategy, complexity of its on- and off-balance sheet activities and funding mismatches. The Authorised Firm should also make appropriate assumptions in relation to the marketability of liquid assets under various stress scenarios;
            f. establish a set of reporting criteria, specifying the scope, manner and frequency of reporting to various recipients (such as the Governing Body, senior management and the asset/liability committee) and who is responsible for preparing the reports. The reporting should include a comprehensive system for projecting cash flows arising from assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet items, both consolidated and at the entity level, over an appropriate set of time horizons;
            g. establish the specific procedures and approvals necessary for exceptions to policies and limits, including the escalation procedures and follow-up actions to be taken for breaches of limits;
            h. monitor closely current trends and potential market developments that may present significant, unprecedented and complex challenges for managing Liquidity Risk so that appropriate and prompt changes to the liquidity management strategy can be made as needed;
            i. continuously review information on the Authorised Firm's liquidity developments and report regularly to the Governing Body; and
            j. maintain an independent and competent internal control function and conduct regular internal audit reviews to ensure the integrity and effectiveness of the Liquidity Risk policy.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • PIB 9.2.2

          (1) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its Governing Body is ultimately responsible for the Liquidity Risk assumed by the firm as well as the adequacy of systems, controls and processes used to manage that risk.
          (2) Without limiting the operation of (1), the responsibilities of an Authorised Firm's Governing Body in respect of Liquidity Risk include:
          (a) approving the Authorised Firm's Liquidity Risk policy;
          (b) establishing and maintaining a senior management structure with clearly defined responsibilities and roles for the management of Liquidity Risk and for ensuring compliance with the Authorised Firm's Liquidity Risk policy;
          (c) ensuring the senior management in (b) and other relevant personnel have the necessary experience to manage Liquidity Risk;
          (d) monitoring the Authorised Firm's overall Liquidity Risk profile on a regular basis by receiving adequate reporting and being aware of any material changes in the Authorised Firm's current or prospective Liquidity Risk profile;
          (e) ensuring that Liquidity Risk is adequately identified, assessed, mitigated, controlled and monitored in accordance with the Authorised Firm's Liquidity Risk policy;
          (f) ensuring that the Liquidity Risk policy are is documented; and
          (g) ensuring that the Liquidity Risk policy are is reviewed at least annually.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
          [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 9.2.2 Guidance

            1. Senior management and the Governing Body of an Authorised Firm are expected to demonstrate a thorough understanding of the links between funding liquidity risk and market liquidity risk, as well as how other risks, including credit, market, operational and reputation risks, affect the Authorised Firm's overall Liquidity Risk policy.
            2. Senior management should ensure that all business units with activities that have an impact on Liquidity Risk are aware of the Liquidity Risk policy and limits.
            3. Senior management should ensure that the Liquidity Risk policy outlines clearly the structure, responsibilities and controls for managing Liquidity Risk in and across different jurisdictions, legal entities and branches. They should also ensure that the structure, responsibilities and controls take into account legal, operational, regulatory, reputational and other constraints on liquidity transfer.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • Requirements imposed on a Category 2 firm

            (3) An Authorised Firm in Category 2 must:
            (a) establish and maintain a senior management structure to manage Liquidity Risk;
            (b) identify, assess, mitigate, control and monitor Liquidity Risk; and
            (c) monitor the Authorised Firm's overall Liquidity Risk profile on a regular basis.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • Guidance

              In respect of Rule 9.2.2(2)(b), senior management are expected to:

              a. oversee the development, establishment and maintenance of procedures and practices that translate the goals, objectives and risk tolerances approved by the Governing Body into operating standards that are consistent with the Governing Body's intent and which are understood by the relevant members of an Authorised Firm's staff;
              b. adhere to the lines of authority and responsibility that the Governing Body has established for managing Liquidity Risk;
              c. oversee the establishment and maintenance of management information and other systems that identify, assess, control and monitor the Authorised Firm's Liquidity Risk; and
              d. oversee the establishment of effective internal controls over the Liquidity Risk management process.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • PIB 9.2.3

          (1) An Authorised Firm may delegate the day-to-day management of its Liquidity Risk to another entity in the same Group for management on a Group basis only if:
          (a) the Governing Body of the Authorised Firm:
          (i) has formally approved the delegation;
          (ii) keeps the delegation under review; and
          (b) the Authorised Firm notifies the DFSA in writing of the delegation immediately upon its being made.
          (2) If an Authorised Firm delegates the management of its Liquidity Risk in accordance with (1), the requirements in this chapter continue to apply to the Authorised Firm.
          (3) An Authorised Firm must revoke a delegation referred to in (1) and bring day-to-day Liquidity Risk management back within the Authorised Firm if the DFSA requests it in writing to do so.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 9.2.3 Guidance

            If Liquidity Risk management is delegated as set out in PIB Rule 9.2.3, responsibility for its effectiveness remains with the Authorised Firm's Governing Body.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Identifying Liquidity Risk

          • PIB 9.2.4

            (1) An Authorised Firm must comply with the requirements in this Rule in implementing its system and controls referred to in PIB Rule 9.2.1(2) and (3).
            (2) An Authorised Firm must assess the cash flows for its assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet items under both normal market conditions and stressed conditions resulting from either general market turbulence or firm-specific difficulties.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must assess the extent to which committed facilities can be relied upon under stressed conditions identified in accordance with PIB Rule 9.2A.3.
            (4) An Authorised Firm must consider potential liability concentrations when determining the appropriate mix of liabilities.
            (5) An Authorised Firm must identify the Liquidity Risk across all legal entities, branches and subsidiaries and in all jurisdictions in which it operates.
            (6) If an Authorised Firm has significant, unhedged liquidity mismatches in particular currencies, it must assess:
            (a) the volatilities of the exchange rates of the mismatched currencies;
            (b) likely access to the foreign exchange markets in normal and stressed conditions; and
            (c) the stability of deposits in those currencies with the Authorised Firm in stressed conditions.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 9.2.4 Guidance

              1. As part of the assessment for the purposes of PIB Rule 9.2.4(2), an Authorised Firm should:
              a. identify significant concentrations within its asset portfolio; and
              b. value the assets conservatively, taking into account the likely deterioration in the value of assets under market-wide stress conditions.
              2. For the purposes of PIB Rule 9.2.4(4), an Authorised Firm should consider factors including:
              a. the term structure of its liabilities;
              b. the credit-sensitivity of its liabilities;
              c. the mix of secured and unsecured funding;
              d. concentrations among its liability providers or related Groups of liability providers;
              e. reliance on particular instruments or products;
              f. the geographical location of liability providers; and
              g. reliance on intra-Group funding.
              3. As appropriate, an Authorised Firm would be expected to consider the amount of funding required by:
              a. commitments given;
              b. standby facilities given;
              c. wholesale overdraft facilities given;
              d. proprietary derivatives positions; and
              e. liquidity facilities given for securitisation transactions.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Measuring and Monitoring Liquidity Risk

          • PIB 9.2.5

            (1) An Authorised Firm must ensure that the method referred to in PIB Rule 9.2.1(3)(b) for measuring Liquidity Risk is capable of:
            (a) measuring the extent of the Liquidity Risk it is incurring
            (b) tracking early warning indicators to aid the Liquidity Risk management processes;
            (c) dealing with the dynamic aspects of the Authorised Firm's liquidity profile;
            (d) where appropriate, measuring the Authorised Firm's Exposure to Foreign Currency Liquidity Risk; and
            (e) where appropriate, measuring the Authorised Firm's Exposure to PSIA and Islamic Contract Liquidity Risk.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain a system of management reporting which provides relevant, accurate, comprehensive, timely, forward looking and reliable Liquidity Risk reports to relevant functions within the Authorised Firm.
            (3) The method for measuring Liquidity Risk under (1)(a) must enable the Authorised Firm to forecast prospective cash flows for assets, liabilities, off-balance sheet commitments and contingent liabilities over a variety of time horizons, under both normal conditions and a range of stress scenarios, including scenarios of severe stress.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 9.2.5 Guidance

              1. An Authorised Firm, in measuring its Liquidity Risk under PIB Rule 9.2.5 should ensure that:
              (a) the variety of time horizons cover changes in liquidity needs and funding capacity on an intra-day, daily, short-term, medium-term and long–term basis;
              (b) it considers the vulnerabilities of cash flows to events, activities and business strategies;
              (c) its dynamic cash flow forecasts are carried out at a sufficiently detailed level and include assumptions on the actions of key counterparties in response to changes in operating conditions;
              (d) cash flows in all significant foreign currencies are measured on an aggregate basis, as well as at the individual currency level, taking into account stressed conditions affecting foreign exchange markets;
              (e) it captures the impact of providing correspondent, custody and settlement activities on cash flows; and
              (f) assumptions used to determine future liquidity and funding needs are realistic and reflect the complexities of the underlying businesses, products and markets.
              2. Early warning indicators should be designed to assist the Authorised Firm to identify any negative trends in its liquidity position and to assist its management to assess and respond to mitigate its exposure to those trends.
              3. Management information should include the following:
              a. a cash-flow or funding gap report on an aggregate basis and by currency, legal entity and country;
              b. a funding maturity schedule;
              c. a list of large providers of funding;
              d. reports on Collateral and encumbered assets to enable compliance with PIB Rule 9.2.8;
              e. a liquidity costs, benefits and risks allocation report to assist compliance with PIB Rule 9.2.9;
              f. intra-day liquidity reports to assist compliance with PIB Rule 9.2.10;
              g. where appropriate, a schedule of Islamic funding sources;
              h. a limit monitoring and exception report;
              i. asset quality and trends;
              j. earnings projections; and
              k. the Authorised Firm's reputation in the market and the condition of the market itself.
              4.An Authorised Firm should be able to generate critical liquidity reports on a daily basis, including in times of stress.
              5.Where an Authorised Firm is a member of a Group, it should be able to assess the potential impact on it of Liquidity Risk arising in other parts of the Group.
              6. Where an Authorised Firm has subsidiaries or branches, it should be able to monitor and control Liquidity Risk at the individual branch or subsidiary level and on a consolidated level taking into account legal, operational, regulatory, reputational and other relevant constraints.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Controlling Liquidity Risk

          • PIB 9.2.6

            An Authorised Firm must ensure that the system referred to in PIB Rule 9.2.1(3)(c):

            (a) enables the Authorised Firm's Governing Body and senior management to review compliance with limits set in accordance with PIB Rule 9.2.7 and operating procedures; and
            (b) has appropriate approval processes, limits and other mechanisms designed to provide reasonable assurance that the Authorised Firm's Liquidity Risk management processes are adhered to.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 9.2.7

            (1) An Authorised Firm must hold sufficient liquidity resources and ensure that its Governing Body sets appropriate liquidity limits to manage its Liquidity Risk effectively under both day-to-day and stressed conditions.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must periodically review and, where appropriate, adjust the limits referred to in (1) when its Liquidity Risk policy changes.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must promptly escalate and resolve any policy or limit exceptions according to the processes described in its Liquidity Risk policy.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 9.2.7 Guidance

              An Authorised Firm should set limits to control its liquidity risk exposure and vulnerabilities. Limits and corresponding escalation procedures should be reviewed regularly. Limits should be relevant to the business in terms of its location, complexity of activity, nature of products, currencies and markets served. If an Authorised Firm breaches a liquidity risk limit, it should implement a plan to review its exposure and reduce it to a level that is within the limit.

              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Management of collateralised and encumbered assets

          • PIB 9.2.8

            (1) An Authorised Firm must prudently manage its collateral positions using a collateral management system.
            (2) The Authorised Firm's collateral management system must be able to:
            (a) distinguish between pledged and unencumbered assets, including during periods of liquidity stress;
            (b) take into account the legal entity in which liquid assets reside; and
            (c) identify, in a timely manner, the countries where assets are legally recorded and any restrictions imposed on their transfer or liquidation.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must manage its encumbered balance sheet assets within prudent limits to minimise the impact on its liquidity position and funding cost.
            (4) For the purposes of (3), the Authorised Firm's system supporting the management of encumbered assets must be able to provide information on:
            (a) the current and expected level and types of asset encumbrance and related transactions;
            (b) the nature of unencumbered assets including amount, location and credit quality;
            (c) the capacity for further asset encumbrance, including available unencumbered assets and the potential liquidity that can be generated; and
            (d) the expected amount, level and type of additional encumbrance that may result from stress scenarios.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Allocation of liquidity costs, benefits and risks

          • PIB 9.2.9

            An Authorised Firm must ensure that the system referred to in PIB Rule 9.2.1(3)(e):

            (a) incorporates liquidity costs, benefits and risks in internal pricing, performance measurement, and new product approval processes for all significant business activities both on- and off-balance sheet;
            (b) assigns appropriate liquidity charges to positions, portfolios and transactions. The liquidity charge must incorporate factors relating to the holding period of assets and liabilities, market liquidity characteristics, stability of the funding source and any other relevant factor;
            (c) provides quantification and attribution of Liquidity Risk that is explicit, transparent and takes into account liquidity under stressed conditions; and
            (d) is reviewed periodically to reflect changing business and market conditions.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Intra-day liquidity

          • PIB 9.2.10

            (1) An Authorised Firm must manage its intra-day liquidity positions prudently to ensure that it is able to meet its settlement and payment obligations in a timely manner under business as usual and stressed conditions, in all material currencies and active markets.
            (2) For the purposes of (1), an Authorised Firm must be reasonably able to:
            (a) identify and prioritise the most time critical payment and settlement obligations;
            (b) measure daily gross liquidity inflows and outflows and any potential funding gaps;
            (c) identify cash flow timings and shortfalls at different points in time during the day;
            (d) manage the timing of cash outflows to give priority to time critical payments; and
            (e) obtain sufficient intra-day funding, including intra-day liquidity facilities from correspondent banks or Central Banks.
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        PIB 9.2A">
      • PIB 9.2A Funding Strategy, Stress Testing and Contingency Funding Plan

        • Funding strategy

          • PIB 9.2A.1

            (1) An Authorised Firm must develop a funding strategy that provides effective diversification in the sources and nature of its funding.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must ensure that the funding strategy is in writing and is approved by its Governing Body.
            (3) The funding strategy must be in line with the Authorised Firm's stated Liquidity Risk tolerance and supported by robust assumptions that are consistent with the Authorised Firm's budgeting and business planning process.
            (4) The funding strategy must be supported by systems that allow the Authorised Firm to identify, measure, manage and monitor funding positions.
            (5) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its funding strategy is reviewed regularly and at least annually, and is updated as necessary in light of changed funding conditions and any change in the Authorised Firm's strategy.
            (6) An Authorised Firm must notify the DFSA in writing immediately of any material changes to the Authorised Firm's funding strategy.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 9.2A.1 Guidance

              1. The diversification under PIB Rule 9.2A.1(1) should include, for example, different counterparties, instruments, currencies, geographies and markets.
              2. The assumptions in PIB Rule 9.2A.1(3) should be forward looking and take into account the macroeconomic and market conditions in which the Authorised Firm operates and any other factors that are likely to impact its funding position.
              3. The DFSA expects that funding positions referred to in PIB Rule 9.2A.1(4) would cover both present and projected positions across multiple time horizons generated from both on- and off-balance sheet items.
              4. In order to formulate the funding strategy properly, an Authorised Firm should pay attention to other risks, including, for example, credit market, operational and reputational risk and their impact of funding requirements.
              5. An Authorised Firm should maintain an ongoing presence in its chosen funding markets and strong relationships with funds providers.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • PIB 9.2A.2

            (1) An Authorised Firm must assess market access under a variety of normal and stressed conditions.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must assess regularly its capacity to raise funds quickly including on a secured and unsecured basis.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must:
            (a) identify the main factors that affect its ability to raise funds; and
            (b) monitor those factors closely to ensure that estimates of fund raising capacity remain valid.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Stress Testing

          • PIB 9.2A.3

            (1) An Authorised Firm must conduct stress tests regularly to identify sources of potential liquidity strain and to ensure that its exposures remain within its Liquidity Risk tolerance.
            (2) When using stress testing in accordance with (1), an Authorised Firm must:
            (a) use scenarios based on varying degrees of short-term and protracted institution-specific and market-wide stress (individually and in combination); and
            (b) include a cash-flow projection for each scenario tested, based on reasonable estimates of the impact (both on and off-balance sheet) of that scenario on the Authorised Firm's funding needs and sources.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must fully document its stress test scenarios and related assumptions, and review the scenarios and assumptions, at least annually to ensure they remain appropriate.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 9.2A.3 Guidance

              1. An Authorised Firm should consider carefully the design of stress scenarios and the variety of shocks used. Regardless of how strong its current liquidity situation appears to be, it should take a conservative approach when setting stress testing assumptions. It should consider the potential impact of severe stress scenarios and how they would affect the following Liquidity Risk drivers as applicable to the firm's operations:
              a. retail funding risk;
              b. wholesale secured and unsecured funding risk;
              c. risks arising from funding markets;
              d. lack of diversification between funding types;
              e. off-balance sheet funding risk;
              f. risks arising from the firm's funding tenors;
              g. risks associated with a deterioration of the firm's credit rating;
              h. cross-currency funding risk;
              i. risk that liquidity resources cannot be transferred across entities, sectors and countries;
              j. funding risks resulting from estimates of future balance sheet growth;
              k. reputational risk;
              l. marketable and non-marketable assets risk; and
              m. intra-day payment and settlement risk.
              2. Market-wide stress scenarios under PIB 9.2A.3(2)(a) should include:
              a. a simultaneous drying up of market liquidity in several previously highly liquid markets;
              b. severe constraints in accessing secured and unsecured funding;
              c. restrictions on currency convertibility; and
              d. severe operational or settlement disruptions affecting one or more payment or settlement systems.
              3. The identification of the possible balance sheet and off-balance sheet impact referred to in PIB Rule 9.2A.3(2)(b) should take into account:
              a. possible changes in the market's perception of the Authorised Firm and the effects that this might have on the Authorised Firm's access to the markets, including:
              i. where the Authorised Firm funds its holdings of assets in one currency with liabilities in another, access to foreign exchange markets, particularly in less frequently traded currencies;
              ii. access to secured funding, including by way of repurchase agreement transactions; and
              iii. the extent to which the Authorised Firm may rely on committed facilities made available to it;
              b. whenever applicable the possible effect of each scenario tested on currencies whose exchange rates are currently pegged or fixed; and
              c. that:
              i. general market turbulence may trigger a substantial increase in the extent to which persons exercise rights against the Authorised Firm under off-balance sheet instruments to which the Authorised Firm is party;
              ii. access to OTC derivative and foreign exchange markets is sensitive to credit-ratings;
              iii. Early Amortisation in asset securitisation transactions with which the Authorised Firm has a connection may be triggered;
              iv. its ability to securitise assets may be reduced; and
              v. there may be a potential need to buy back debt or honour non-contractual obligations to mitigate reputational risk.
              4. An Authorised Firm is required to conduct stress tests regularly. The frequency with which an Authorised Firm should conduct stress tests will depend on the risks to the particular Authorised Firm. For some Authorised Firms, it may be adequate to conduct tests annually, but, for others, it may be necessary to conduct tests more frequently e.g. quarterly.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
              [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
              [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            PIB 9.2A.4">
          • PIB 9.2A.4

            An Authorised Firm must ensure that stress tests conducted under PIB Rule 9.2A.3 enable it to analyse the impact of stress scenarios on its liquidity positions, as well as on the liquidity positions of its individual business lines.

            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            PIB 9.2A.5">
          • PIB 9.2A.5

            (1) An Authorised Firm must ensure that results of the stress tests are integrated into its strategic planning process and its day-to-day risk management practices.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must apply the results of the stress tests:
            (a) to adjust its liquidity management strategy, policies and positions, including to determine an appropriate buffer of HQLA;
            (b) for the setting of internal limits; and
            (c) for the purpose of the IRAP and ICAAP assessments under chapter 10, where applicable.
            (3) An Authorised Firm must incorporate the stress test results in assessing and planning for related potential funding shortfalls in its Contingency Funding Plan.
            (4) An Authorised Firm must ensure that the stress test results and vulnerabilities and any resulting actions are reported to, and discussed with, its Governing Body and the DFSA.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.2A.5 Guidance

              If the DFSA considers that an Authorised Firm has not carried out effective stress tests under Rules PIB 9.2A.3 to PIB 9.2A.5, it may use its power under Article 75A of the Regulatory Law to require the Authorised Firm to maintain a buffer of liquid assets in addition to that required under section PIB 9.3.

              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • Contingency Funding Plan

          • Guidance

            A Contingency Funding Plan, or CFP, is a compilation of policies, procedures and action plans for responding to severe disruptions to an Authorised Firm's ability to meet its liabilities as they fall due or its ability to fund some or all of its activities quickly and at a reasonable cost.

            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            PIB 9.2A.6">
          • PIB 9.2A.6

            (1) An Authorised Firm must have a documented Contingency Funding Plan (CFP) that sets out clearly its strategies for addressing liquidity shortfalls in emergency situations.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its CFP is in writing and is approved by its Governing Body.
            (3) The CFP must be commensurate with an Authorised Firm's complexity, risk profile and scope of operations and its role in the financial systems in which it operates.
            (4) The CFP must:
            (a) list the events or circumstances that will lead the Authorised Firm to put any part of the plan into action;
            (b) set out available potential contingency funding sources and the amount of funds an Authorised Firm estimates can be derived from these sources;
            (c) estimate the lead time needed to tap additional funds from each of the contingency sources;
            (d) set out the extent to which the plan relies upon:
            (i) asset sales, using assets as Collateral on secured funding (including repurchase agreements), securitising its assets or otherwise reducing its assets;
            (ii) modifying the structure of, or increasing, its liabilities; and
            (iii) the use of committed facilities; and
            (e) contain clear administrative policies and procedures that will enable the Authorised Firm to manage the implementation of the plan, including:
            (i) the roles and responsibilities of senior management, including who has the authority to invoke the CFP;
            (ii) the names, location and contact details of members of the team responsible for implementing the plan;
            (iii) the details of who is responsible for contact with the Authorised Firm's head office (if appropriate), analysts, investors, external auditors, media, significant customers, regulators and others; and
            (iv) the mechanisms that enable senior management and the Governing Body to receive relevant, accurate, comprehensive, timely and reliable management information.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.2A.6 Guidance

              1. The CFP should provide a framework with a high degree of flexibility so that an Authorised Firm can respond quickly in a variety of situations.
              2. The CFP's design, plans and procedures should be closely integrated with the Authorised Firm's ongoing analysis of Liquidity Risk and with the results of the scenarios and assumptions used in stress tests.
              3. The CFP should assist the Authorised Firm to manage a range of scenarios of severe liquidity stress that include both firm-specific and more generalised market-wide stress, as well as the potential interaction between them.
              4. The CFP should, for each of the tested scenarios, demonstrate that the Authorised Firm has sufficient liquid financial resources to meet its liabilities over a range of different time periods, including intraday.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            PIB 9.2A.7">
          • PIB 9.2A.7

            An Authorised Firm must ensure that its CFP accounts for:

            (a) the impact of stressed market conditions on its ability to sell or securitise assets;
            (b) the link between asset liquidity and funding liquidity;
            (c) second round and reputational effects related to execution of contingency funding measures; and
            (d) the potential to transfer liquidity across Group entities, borders and lines of business, taking into account legal, regulatory, operational and time zone constraints.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            PIB 9.2A.8">
          • PIB 9.2A.8

            (1) An Authorised Firm must review and test its CFP regularly to ensure it is effective and operationally feasible.
            (2) For the purposes of (1), an Authorised Firm must review and update its CFP at least annually for approval by its Governing Body, or more frequently if required by business or market circumstances.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.2A.8 Guidance

              1. Key aspects of CFP testing include ensuring that roles and responsibilities are appropriate and understood, confirming that contact information is up to date, proving the transferability of cash and collateral (especially across borders and entities) and ensuring that the necessary legal and operational documentation is in place to execute the plan at short notice.
              2. An Authorised Firm should test key assumptions regularly, such as its ability to sell or repo certain assets or periodically draw down credit lines.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            PIB 9.2A.9">
          • PIB 9.2A.9

            An Authorised Firm must ensure that its CFP is consistent with its business continuity and disaster recovery arrangements and can operate in situations where business continuity arrangements have been invoked.

            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.2A.9 Guidance

              1. See GEN chapter 5 regarding requirements relating to an Authorised Firm's business continuity and disaster recovery arrangements.
              2. An Authorised Firm should ensure effective coordination between teams managing issues surrounding liquidity crises and business continuity. Liquidity crisis team members and alternates should have ready access to CFPs on-site and off-site.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

      • PIB 9.3 Liquidity Requirements

        • PIB 9.3.1

          (1) This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5.
          (2) The Rules in this section apply, except as provided in (3), to an Authorised Firm on a solo basis.
          (3) The DFSA may require an Authorised Firm to apply the requirements in this section to its Financial Group, if the Authorised Firm and its Financial Group are subject to consolidated supervision.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • Global Liquidity Concession

          • PIB 9.3.2

            (1) An Authorised Firm which carries on business in or from the DIFC through a Branch may apply to the DFSA for a global liquidity concession.
            (2) An application for a global liquidity concession must be made in accordance with the requirements in section PIB A9.1 of App9.
            (3) If the DFSA grants a global liquidity concession to an Authorised Firm, that Authorised Firm need not comply with all or any of the requirements of this section as specified by the DFSA in the concession.
            (4) The DFSA may specify the period for which a global liquidity concession is valid.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.3.2 Guidance [Deleted]

              [Deleted] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • HQLA Requirement

          • PIB 9.3.3">
          • PIB 9.3.3

            An Authorised Firm must maintain an adequate level of HQLA to meet its liquidity needs for, at a minimum, a 30 calendar day period under a severe stress scenario.

            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.3.3 Guidance

              Rules PIB A9.2.2 to PIB A9.2.9 in App9 set out the conditions that must be met for assets to be treated as HQLA.

              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • Liquidity Coverage Ratio

          • PIB 9.3.4">
          • PIB 9.3.4

            An Authorised Firm must, except as provided in PIB Rule 9.3.8, maintain a LCR of at least the level specified in the table below from the date specified in the table.

            Table - Minimum LCR levels

            Date
            1st January 2015
            1st January 2016
            1st January 2017
            1st January 2018
            1st January 2019
            Minimum LCR
            60%
            70%
            80%
            90%
            100%
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.3.4 Guidance

              Under PIB Rule 9.3.4, an Authorised Firm must maintain a minimum level of LCR of 60% starting on 1 January 2015. The minimum requirement will be increased subsequently in each following year in equal annual steps of 10% to reach 100% on and from 1 January 2019. PIB Rule 9.3.4 sets minimum levels and is not intended to limit the generality of the requirement in PIB Rule 9.3.3.

              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            PIB 9.3.5">
          • PIB 9.3.5

            An Authorised Firm must calculate its LCR using the following formula and in accordance with the Rules in section PIB A9.2 of App9.

            LCR = Value of stock of HQLA / Total Net Cash Outflows over the next 30 calendar days

            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.3.5 Guidance

              1. Section PIB A9.2 of App9 sets out how the value of stock of HQLA and Total Net Cash Outflows are to be calculated.
              2. An Authorised Firm active in multiple currencies should:
              a. maintain HQLA consistent with the distribution of its liquidity needs by currency;
              b. assess its aggregate foreign currency liquidity needs and determine an acceptable level of currency mismatches; and
              c. undertake a separate analysis of its strategy for each currency in which it has material activities, considering potential constraints in times of stress.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • Individual Liquidity Requirement

          • PIB 9.3.6

            (1) The DFSA may by written notice to an Authorised Firm in relation to the LCR Requirement applying to it:
            (a) adjust the LCR Requirement or NSFR Requirement;
            (b) adjust requirements under section PIB A9.2 of App9 for calculating the Authorised Firm's stock of HQLA or the Total Net Cash Outflows, or under section PIB A9.4 of App9 for calculating its ASF or RSF;
            (c) alter the calculation methodologies or parameters for the purposes of the LCR Requirement or NSFR Requirement;
            (d) disapply the LCR Requirement or NSFR Requirement; or
            (e) impose additional requirements based on the DFSA's assessment of the Liquidity Risk exposure of that Authorised Firm.
            (2) If the DFSA amends a requirement under (1)(a), (b), (c) or (e), the Authorised Firm must comply with the requirement as amended. If the DFSA disapplies a requirement under (1)(d), the Authorised Firm need not comply with that requirement.
            (3) The procedures in Schedule 3 to the Regulatory Law apply to a decision of the DFSA under (1)(a),(b),(c) or (e).
            (4) If the DFSA decides to exercise its power under (1)(a),(b),(c) or (e), the Authorised Firm may refer the matter to the FMT for review.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Liquid Assets Buffer

          • PIB 9.3.7">
          • PIB 9.3.7

            (1) An Authorised Firm must, except as provided under PIB Rule 9.3.8, maintain a buffer of HQLA over the minimum level of LCR required under its LCR Requirement, appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its operations and in line with its Liquidity Risk tolerance.
            (2) In determining the size of its buffer of HQLA under (1), an Authorised Firm must also take into account the results of stress tests conducted under section PIB 9.2A.
            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.3.7 Guidance

              1. For the purposes of PIB Rule 9.3.7(2), an Authorised Firm should conduct its own stress tests to assess the level of liquidity it should hold beyond the minimum required under this section, and construct its own scenarios that could cause difficulties for its specific business activities. Such internal stress tests should incorporate longer periods than the one required under this section. Authorised Firms are expected to share the results of these additional stress tests with the DFSA.
              2. As set out in the Guidance after PIB Rule 9.2A.5, the DFSA may require an Authorised Firm to maintain an additional buffer of liquid assets in cases where the DFSA assesses that the Authorised Firm has failed to carry out stress tests effectively.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • Liquidation of Assets During Periods of Stress

          • PIB 9.3.8">
          • PIB 9.3.8

            During a period of financial or liquidity stress, an Authorised Firm may liquidate part of its stock of HQLA and use the cash generated to cover cash outflows. Its level of HQLA may fall below the levels required under its LCR Requirement and PIB Rule 9.3.7 to the extent necessary to deal with cash outflows during that period.

            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • Notification if LCR Requirement Not Met

          • PIB 9.3.9">
          • PIB 9.3.9

            An Authorised Firm must notify the DFSA in writing immediately if it does not meet, or becomes aware of circumstances that may result in it not meeting, its LCR Requirement (including during a period of stress referred to in PIB Rule 9.3.8).

            [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

            • PIB 9.3.9 Guidance

              1. An Authorised Firm should in its notification clearly explain:
              a. the reasons for not meeting the limits;
              b. measures that have been taken and will be taken to ensure it meets its LCR Requirement; and
              c. its expectations regarding the potential duration of the situation.
              2. An Authorised Firm that makes a notification should discuss with the DFSA what, if any, further steps it should take to deal with the situation.
              [Added] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]

        • The Maturity Mismatch Approach

          • The Maturity Mismatch Approach Guidance

            The Maturity Mismatch approach measures an Authorised Firm's liquidity by assessing the mismatch between its inflows (assets) and outflows (liabilities) within different timebands on a Maturity Ladder.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 9.3.10

          (1) An Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5 must use the Maturity Mismatch approach, as set out in this section, to measure liquidity.
          (2) When using the Maturity Mismatch approach, an Authorised Firm must determine the net cumulative Maturity Mismatch position for each time band by:
          (a) determining, in accordance with the Rules in PIB section A9.3 of App9, the inflows (assets), outflows (liabilities), liquid assets and funding capacity which are to be included in the relevant time bands in the Maturity Ladder; and
          (b) subtracting outflows (liabilities) from inflows (assets) in each time band, and adding the eligible assets, in accordance with section A9.3 of App 9.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
          [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]
          [Amended] DFSA RM227/2018 (Made 6th June 2018). [VER32/08-18]

        • Measuring Liquidity for Category 1 and Category 5

          • PIB 9.3.11

            (1) An Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5 must determine a net cumulative Maturity Mismatch position for each time band in respect of each of the following means of funding used by the Authorised Firm:
            (a) PSIAus; and
            (b) deposits.
            (2) An Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5 must calculate its liquidity by using the net cumulative Maturity Mismatch position separately for each means of funding used by the Authorised Firm as a percentage of the means of funding in each time band as follows:
            (a) PSIAu net cumulative Maturity Mismatch % =
            Net cumulative Maturity Mismatch x 100
            Total PSIAus
            (b) Total deposit liabilities net cumulative Maturity Mismatch % =
            Net cumulative Maturity Mismatch x 100
            Total deposits
            (3) An Authorised Firm must ensure that its net cumulative Maturity Mismatch position for each means of funding used by the Authorised Firm in the sight - 8 days time band does not exceed negative 15%
            (4) An Authorised Firm must notify the DFSA in writing immediately if it exceeds or is likely to exceed the net cumulative Maturity Mismatch limits referred to in (3).
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) Requirement

          • PIB 9.3.12

            (1) An Authorised Firm must maintain a Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) of at least 100%.
            (2) The NSFR under (1) must be calculated using the formula:
            NSFR = ASF x 100
            RSF

            where:

            (a) ASF (Available Stable Funding) is the amount, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule A9.4.1, representing the relative stability of an Authorised Firm's available funding sources; and

            (b) RSF (Required Stable Funding) is the amount, calculated in accordance with PIB Rule A9.4.2, representing the Liquidity Risk profile of an Authorised Firm's assets and OBS Exposures (or potential liquidity Exposures).
            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • PIB 9.3.12 Guidance

              1. The objective of the NSFR Requirement is to require an Authorised Firm to maintain a stable funding profile relative to the composition of its assets and off-balance sheet activities. A stable funding profile reduces the likelihood that disruptions to an Authorised Firm's regular sources of funding will erode its liquidity position in a way that would increase the risk of its failure and potentially lead to broader systemic stress. The NSFR Requirement limits over-reliance on short-term wholesale funding, encourages better assessment of funding risk across all on- and off-balance sheet items and promotes funding stability.
              2. PIB Section A9.4 of App9 sets out how an Authorised Firm's Available Stable Funding (ASF) and Required Stable Funding (RSF) are to be calculated.
              3. If the DFSA considers that the Financial Services Regulator of the home state of an Authorised Firm that is a Branch has not fully implemented the Basel III NSFR requirements, it may use its power under Article 75A of the Regulatory Law to require the Authorised Firm to comply with appropriate NSFR requirements.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Notification if the NSFR Requirement not met

          • PIB 9.3.13

            An Authorised Firm must notify the DFSA in writing immediately if it does not meet, or becomes aware of circumstances that may result in it not meeting, its NSFR Requirement.

            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

            • 9.3.13 Guidance

              1. An Authorised Firm should explain clearly in its notification:
              a. the reasons for it not meeting its NSFR Requirement;
              b. measures that have been taken and will be taken to ensure it meets its NSFR Requirement; and
              c. its expectations regarding the potential duration of the situation.
              2. An Authorised Firm that makes a notification should discuss with the DFSA what, if any, further steps it should take to deal with the situation.
              Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

    • PIB 10 Supervisory Review and Evaluation Processes

      • Introduction

        • PIB 10 Guidance

          1. This chapter deals with the regulatory requirements arising out of the need for Authorised Firms to carry out a self-assessment of their risk which can be reviewed and assessed by the regulator. This chapter details the Rules stipulating the need to complete internal risk assessments by Authorised Firms in defined frequencies and the DFSA's role in reviewing the results of such assessments. In the case of Authorised Firms facing financial risks, the requirements in this chapter mandate completion of an internal capital adequacy assessment process. The DFSA will review the results of such internal risk assessments. This chapter also sets out how the DFSA may impose an additional capital requirement on a firm-specific basis in addition to the minimum requirement specified in PIB chapter 3 of this module.
          2. PIB Appendix 10 provides detailed guidance on the various components of the supervisory review and evaluation process and explains the role of the different parties in completing the required processes.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 10.1 Application

        • PIB 10.1.1

          This chapter applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C or 5 as follows:

          (a) sections PIB 10.1, PIB 10.2, PIB 10.3 and PIB 10.5 apply only to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C or 5; and
          (b) sections PIB 10.4 and PIB 10.6 apply only to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 10.1.2

          Where an Authorised Firm to which this chapter applies is part of a Financial Group, this chapter applies on a consolidated basis in relation to all the entities within the Financial Group.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 10.1.3

          In implementing the requirements prescribed in this chapter, an Authorised Firm must give due and appropriate regard to the provisions in PIB App10.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB 10.1.3 Guidance

            If an Authorised Firm is part of a Financial Group which is already subject to requirements similar to those prescribed in this chapter, the DFSA may consider a request for a waiver or modification in relation to the requirements of this chapter.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 10.2 Overview

        • PIB 10.2 Guidance

          1. These Rules are designed to implement key aspects of Pillar 2 of the revised framework of capital adequacy, commonly known as Basel III, published by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.

          Internal Risk Assessment Process (IRAP)

          2. An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C or 5 is required to carry out an IRAP. An IRAP is a comprehensive internal risk evaluation as detailed in PIB section 10.3. More detail on the establishment of an IRAP and the manner of carrying out an IRAP assessment is provided in PIB App10.

          Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP)

          3. An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5 is also required to carry out an ICAAP as detailed in PIB section 10.4. This process enables such an Authorised Firm to determine and maintain an adequate amount and quality of capital, relative to its risk profile. More detail on the establishment of an ICAAP and the manner of carrying out an ICAAP assessment is provided in PIB App10.

          Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP)

          4. The documented results of IRAP and ICAAP assessments are required to be submitted to the DFSA. The DFSA then applies a process known as the SREP as detailed in PIB section 10.5. As part of the SREP, the DFSA will evaluate the quality, completeness and consistency of the IRAP and, where applicable, the ICAAP of the Authorised Firm, to form a view on the overall risk profile of the firm and whether the capital held by the firm is sufficient to deal with the risks. More detail concerning the SREP is provided in PIB App10.
          5. Following review of the IRAP and ICAAP of an Authorised Firm, the DFSA may engage in a dialogue with the firm to evaluate the assessment of risks and where relevant, additional capital which the DFSA considers that the firm should hold resulting from the IRAP, ICAAP or SREP.

          Individual Capital Requirement (ICR)

          6. Upon completing the SREP, the DFSA may impose an Individual Capital Requirement on an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5 as detailed in PIB section 10.6. The ICR may be imposed where the DFSA concludes that the firm should hold more capital to provide for its overall risks.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 10.3 IRAP

        • PIB 10.3.1

          This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C or 5.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 10.3.2

          (1) An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain an IRAP which details the processes and procedures by which the firm will identify, assess, aggregate and monitor the risks faced by it.
          (2) The firm must conduct the IRAP assessment at least annually giving due regard to the Guidance in PIB section A10.1 of PIB App10.
          (3) The IRAP assessment conducted by the firm pursuant to (2) must be approved by its Governing Body and then submitted to the DFSA within four months from the end of the firm's financial year.
          (4) In addition to (2), the firm must conduct an IRAP assessment:
          (a) whenever there is material change to the business, strategy, nature or scale of the activities of the firm which may have a significant impact on its risk profile or adequacy of its Capital Resources or Adjusted Capital Resources, as applicable; or
          (b) as and when required by the DFSA.
          (5) An IRAP assessment conducted by the firm pursuant to (4) must be approved by its Governing Body and then submitted to the DFSA within two months, or such other period as may be specified by the DFSA, from the date of such material change or requirement.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 10.3.3

          The results of an IRAP assessment must be documented by the Authorised Firm in writing and include details of:

          (a) the risks identified;
          (b) the firm's strategies and plans to deal with those risks;
          (c) the firm's assessment of the adequacy of its Capital Requirement as calculated under PIB to address all the risks identified by its IRAP;
          (d) the details of any stress testing and scenario analysis carried out and the resultant impact on the Capital Requirement; and
          (e) any other relevant information, giving due regard to the Guidance in PIB App10.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 10.3.4

          An Authorised Firm must retain the records of an IRAP assessment for at least six years.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 10.4 ICAAP

        • PIB 10.4.1

          This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 10.4.2

          (1) An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain an ICAAP which details the processes and procedures by which the firm will assess and maintain adequate Capital Resources in relation to the risks faced by it.
          (2) The firm must conduct an ICAAP assessment at least annually giving due regard to the Guidance in PIB section A10.2 of PIB App10.
          (3) The ICAAP assessment conducted by the firm pursuant to (2) must be approved by its Governing Body and then submitted to the DFSA within four months from the end of the firm's financial year.
          (4) In addition to (2), the firm must conduct an ICAAP assessment:
          (a) whenever there is material change to the business, strategy, nature or scale of the activities of the firm which may have a significant impact on its risk profile or adequacy of its Capital Resources or Adjusted Capital Resources, as applicable; or
          (b) as and when required by the DFSA.
          (5) The ICAAP assessment conducted by the firm pursuant to (4) must be approved by its Governing Body and then submitted to the DFSA within two months from the date of such material change or requirement.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 10.4.3

          An Authorised Firm must ensure that an ICAAP assessment is documented in writing and includes details of:

          (a) the calculations and models used in the determination of the level of Capital Requirements which it considers will be adequate to cover all the risks identified by its ICAAP assessment;
          (b) the firm's strategies and plans to ensure availability of the level of capital determined by the ICAAP;
          (c) specifications of any models used in the ICAAP, including the underlying assumptions, parameters, and results of back-testing; and
          (d) any other relevant information, giving due and appropriate regard to the Guidance in PIB App10.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 10.4.4

          An Authorised Firm must retain the records of an ICAAP assessment for at least six years.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 10.5 SREP

        • PIB 10.5 Guidance

          1. The DFSA may conduct a SREP to review and evaluate the assessments carried out by an Authorised Firm under its IRAP (relevant to firms in Categories 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 5) and ICAAP (relevant to firms in Categories 1, 2, 3A and 5). PIB Section A10.3 of PIB App10 contains guidance in relation to a SREP.
          2. The DFSA may engage with a firm in Categories 1, 2, 3A and 5 in a dialogue where, following an SREP, the DFSA considers that it is or may be appropriate to impose an Individual Capital Requirement on the firm.
          3. It is important that a firm cooperates in an open and co-operative manner with the DFSA in the course of its conduct of the dialogue.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 10.6 Imposition of an Individual Capital Requirement

        • PIB 10.6.1

          (1) This section applies to an Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2, 3A or 5.
          (2) The DFSA may, subject to (3) and (4), at any time by written notice to an Authorised Firm:
          (a) impose an Individual Capital Requirement; or
          (b) vary or withdraw an Individual Capital Requirement.
          (3) The DFSA may act under (2) on its own initiative where the DFSA forms the view that the firm's Capital Requirement is insufficient to address adequately all its risks.
          (4) The DFSA will, in addition to prescribing an Individual Capital Requirement, also specify in the notice the types and amounts of Capital Resources required to meet the Individual Capital Requirement.
          (5) The procedures in Schedule 3 to the Regulatory Law apply to a decision of the DFSA under (2) made after a Licence has been granted.
          (6) If the DFSA decides to exercise its power under (2) after a Licence has been granted, the Authorised Firm may refer the matter to the FMT for review.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM135/2014 (Made 21st August 2014). [VER22/06-14]

        • PIB 10.6.2

          An Authorised Firm must have and maintain, at all times, Capital Resources of the types and amounts specified in the notice issued to it under PIB Rule 10.6.1 to meet its Individual Capital Requirement.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

    • PIB 11 Disclosure Requirements

      • Introduction

        • PIB 11 Guidance

          1. This chapter specifies the disclosures required to be made by an Authorised Firm to enable market participants and potential counterparties to exercise market discipline in relation to the firm. PIB chapter 11 applies to banks, principal dealers and Islamic banks and specifies the disclosure requirements for such firms.
          2. PIB Appendix 11 provides a detailed list of disclosure requirements for Authorised Firms to which this chapter applies.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 11.1 Application and General Obligation of Disclosure

        • PIB 11.1 Guidance

          The purpose of the requirements in this chapter is to ensure that minimum public disclosures are made available to market participants to assist them in forming an opinion on the risk profile and capital adequacy of an Authorised Firm. The DFSA expects an Authorised Firm to convey its actual risk profile to market participants.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 11.1.1

          An Authorised Firm in Category 1, 2 or 5 must make the disclosures as prescribed in this chapter.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 11.1.2

          (1) An Authorised Firm which is a member of a Financial Group must, subject to (2), ensure that the disclosures specified in PIB App11 are made at Financial Group level.
          (2) An Authorised Firm which is a Subsidiary of
          (a) a Regulated Financial Institution; or
          (b) another Authorised Firm which is in Category 1, 2 or 5;
          which is already subject to equivalent public disclosure requirements, does not need to comply with the requirements in this chapter to the extent that it meets those equivalent public disclosure requirements.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 11.1.3

          An Authorised Firm must disclose the quantitative indicators in Table 15 of App 11 if it is:

          (a) a G-SIB; or
          (b) in Category 1 or 5 and has a Leverage Ratio Exposure Measure of US$ 200 Billion or more.
          Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

          • 11.1.3 Guidance

            An Authorised Firm does not have to disclose the information in Table 15 of App 11 if it is a subsidiary of another Regulated Financial Institution or Authorised Firm that has to disclose the information — see PIB Rule 11.1.2.

            Derived from DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

      • PIB 11.2 Disclosure Policy

        • PIB 11.2.1

          An Authorised Firm must implement and maintain a written disclosure policy that:

          (a) sets out the firm's approach for determining which of the disclosures set out in PIB App11 it needs to make;
          (b) details the processes and procedures and its internal controls in relation to such disclosure;
          (c) details the medium for disclosure that most appropriately meets the purposes of this chapter; and
          (d) is approved by the Governing Body of the firm.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 11.2.2

          An Authorised Firm must ensure that appropriate verification, whether internal or external, is performed in relation to any disclosure, and take all reasonable steps to ensure its accuracy and timeliness.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB 11.2.3

          To the extent that any required disclosure is substantially similar to a disclosure required of the Authorised Firm under the International Financial Reporting Standards, a disclosure under such standards must be taken to meet the requirement for disclosure under this chapter.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB 11.3 Disclosure Frequency, Locations and Process

        • Frequency

          • PIB 11.3.1

            (1) The disclosures set out in this chapter must be made by the Authorised Firm at least once a year, other than disclosures of CET1 Capital, T1 Capital and T2 Capital, deductions from Capital Resources, Liquidity Coverage Ratio, Net Stable Funding Ratio and Leverage Ratios which must be made on a quarterly basis.
            (2) Reporting deadlines must be in accordance with quarterly and annual reporting obligations under the DFSA Rulebook.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
            [Amended] DFSA RM148/2014 (Made 1st January 2015). [VER23/01-15]
            [Amended] DFSA RM209/2017 (Made 25th October 2017). [VER30/01-18]

        • Locations

          • PIB 11.3.2

            (1) An Authorised Firm must, subject to (2), make these disclosures either in its annual report or periodic financial statements.
            (2) An Authorised Firm may disclose the items marked as quantitative in PIB App11 in a medium or location other than its annual report or periodic financial statements, provided that:
            (a) it has prior approval of the DFSA to do so;
            (b) the annual report or periodic financial statements contain clear references to the location of such disclosures; and
            (c) such disclosures are readily accessible by the market.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB 11.3.2 Guidance

              An Authorised Firm has discretion to determine the form of the disclosures required, and may choose to use graphical and other representations where appropriate.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Omissions

          • PIB 11.3.3

            (1) An Authorised Firm may omit certain disclosures if the omitted item is:
            (a) not material, in accordance with the concept of materiality under the International Financial Reporting Standards,
            (b) proprietary in nature, and the disclosure of the relevant information to the public would undermine the Firm's competitive position or render the Firm's investments in products and systems less valuable, or
            (c) confidential in nature, and the disclosure of the relevant information would violate or jeopardise confidentiality agreements with Clients or Counterparties.
            (2) Where in reliance upon (1)(b) or (c) an Authorised Firm omits an item that is marked as a quantitative disclosure in PIB App11, it must disclose general qualitative information about the subject matter of that particular requirement, together with the reasons for the omission.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

    • PIB App1 Categories of Authorised Firms

      • PIB A1.1 Categorisation of Authorised Firms

        • PIB A1.1 Guidance

          1. This section contains the table referred to in the Guidance notes at the commencement of PIB section 1.3 of PIB. This table is for guidance purposes only.
          2. The Financial Services described in the emboldened boxes in the table are the determinants for the prudential Category. The activities set out in the boxes in the table are Financial Services (see GEN chapter 2). The Financial Services that an Authorised Firm is authorised to carry on are specified on its Licence.
          3. If a Person carries on any one or more of the Financial Services specified in an emboldened box under a particular Category, then the highest such Category is that Person's Category for the purposes of this module.
          4. An exception to the above is an Islamic Financial Institution which Manages a PSIA which is an PSIAu. Such an institution falls in Category 5.
          Category 1 Category 2 Category 3A Category 3B Category 3C Category 4 Category 5
          Accepting Deposits Dealing in Investments as Principal (not as Matched Principal) Dealing in Investments as Principal (only as a Matched Principal) Providing Custody (only if for a Fund) Managing a Collective Investment Fund Arranging Deals in Investments An Islamic Financial Institution which Manages a PSIAu
          Managing a PSIAu Providing Credit Dealing as Agent Acting as the Trustee of a Fund Managing Assets Advising on Financial Products
            Providing Trust Services as a trustee of an express trust Arranging Custody
          Managing a PSIAr Insurance Intermediation
          Providing Custody (other than for a Fund) Insurance Management
            Operating an Alternative Trading System
          Providing Fund Administration
          Providing Trust Services other than as a trustee of an express trust
          Arranging Credit and Advising on Credit
          Operating a Crowdfunding Platform
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM188/2016 (Made 7th December 2016). [VER26/02-17]
          [Amended] DSFA RM203/2017 (Made 14th June 2017). [VER28/08-17]

    • PIB App2 General Requirements

      • PIB A2.1 Detail in the Trading Book

        • PIB A2.1.1

          (1) This Appendix applies to an Authorised Firm which meets the criteria in PIB Rule 2.2.1 and is thereby required to have a Trading Book.
          (2) An Authorised Firm which is required to have a Trading Book must:
          (a) have a Trading Book policy in accordance with PIB section A2.2; and
          (b) include positions in its Trading Book on a consistent basis in accordance with the policy and procedures set out in the Trading Book policy.
          (3) An Authorised Firm must include every position that is not included in its Trading Book in its Non-Trading Book.
          (4) An Authorised Firm must value every position included in its Trading Book and the Non-Trading Book in accordance with the relevant accounting standards and practices.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Value of Trading Book Positions

          • PIB A2.1.2

            (1) In calculating the value of positions for the purposes of PIB Rule 2.2.1(c) an Authorised Firm must value:
            (a) equities and debt instruments at their market prices;
            (b) derivatives according to the values of the underlying; and
            (c) underwriting positions according to the market value of the underlying Securities.
            (2) An Authorised Firm must sum all long and short positions (ignoring the sign) to calculate its total Trading Book size.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Positions Included in the Trading Book

          • PIB A2.1.3

            An Authorised Firm must include in its Trading Book, subject to the Rules on trading intent and hedging Non-Trading Book Exposures:

            (a) each proprietary position in a Financial Instrument, commodity or commodity derivative which is held with trading intent as detailed in PIB Rule A2.1.5(3);
            (b) each position arising from Matched Principal broking and market making;
            (c) each position taken in order to hedge another element of the Trading Book;
            (d) each Exposure due to a repurchase agreement (repo), or Securities and commodities lending, which is based on a Security or commodity included in the Trading Book;
            (e) each Exposure due to a reverse repurchase agreement (reverse repo), or Securities and commodities borrowing transaction included in the Trading Book;
            (f) each Exposure arising from an Unsettled Transaction, free delivery or OTC derivative; and
            (g) each Exposure in the form of a fee, commission, interest, dividend or margin on an exchange-traded derivative directly related to the items included in the Trading Book.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB A2.1.3 Guidance

              Whenever an Authorised Firm acts as principal (even in the context of activity normally described as 'broking' or 'customer business'), positions should be assigned to the Trading Book. This applies even if the nature of the business means that the only risks being incurred by the Authorised Firm are Counterparty Risks (that is, no Market Risk Capital Requirements apply).

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB A2.1.4

            (a) An Authorised Firm must not include loans or traded loans in its Trading Book unless they have been used to hedge a Trading Book transaction.
            (b) An Authorised Firm must not include in its Trading Book an Exposure relating to a direct holding of immovable property.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Trading Intent

          • PIB A2.1.5

            (1) An Authorised Firm must, subject to PIB Rule A2.1.3, only include in its Trading Book:
            (a) a position in a Financial Instrument, commodity or commodity derivative held with trading intent; or
            (b) a position hedging other positions in the Trading Book.
            (2) For the purpose of (1), such positions included in the Trading Book must be free of any restrictive covenants which limit their tradability or ability to be hedged.
            (3) For the purpose of (1), a position in a Financial Instrument, commodity or commodity derivative is held with trading intent if:
            (a) it is held with the intention of:
            (i) benefiting in the short term from actual or expected differences between buying and selling prices or from other price or interest-rate variations;
            (ii) selling it over the short term;
            (iii) locking in arbitrage profits; or
            (iv) market making;
            (b) it is marked to market or marked to model regularly on a prudent and consistent basis, as part of the Authorised Firm's internal risk management processes;
            (c) position-takers at the Authorised Firm have autonomy in entering into or changing transactions within pre-determined limits, or the position satisfies other criteria which the Authorised Firm applies to the composition of its Trading Book;
            (d) there is an appropriate documented trading strategy for the position, approved by senior management which includes the expected holding horizon; and
            (e) active monitoring of the position is undertaken using market information sources.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB A2.1.6

            Positions held with trading intent must comply with the following requirements:

            (a) trading intent must be evidenced in the strategies, policies and procedures established by the Authorised Firm to manage the position or its portfolio;
            (b) there must be clearly defined policies and procedures for active management of the position to ensure the following:
            (i) the position is entered and/or managed on a trading desk;
            (ii) position limits are set and monitored for appropriateness;
            (iii) position-takers at the Authorised Firm have autonomy in entering into or changing transactions within pre-determined limits, or the position satisfies other criteria which the Authorised Firm applies to the composition of its Trading Book;
            (iv) the position is marked-to-market or marked-to-model at least daily on a prudent and consistent basis as part of the Authorised Firm's internal risk management processes;
            (v) where the position is marked-to-model, the parameters for the model are assessed on a daily basis;
            (vi) the position is monitored against the documented trading strategy including the monitoring of turnover and stale positions in the Authorised Firm's Trading Book;
            (vii) active monitoring of the position is undertaken using market information sources and an assessment made of the marketability or hedge-ability of the position or its component risks, including the assessment of the quality and availability of market inputs to the valuation process, level of markets turnover and sizes of positions traded in the market; and
            (viii) positions and exceptions are reported to senior management as an integral part of the risk management process of the Authorised Firm.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Treatment of Structural Foreign Exchange Positions

          • PIB A2.1.7

            An Authorised Firm in Category 1 or 5 which has assumed a position in order to hedge partially or totally against the adverse effect of the exchange rate on its Capital Resources, in respect of an asset or any other item, may exclude such a position from the calculation of its net open foreign exchange positions subject to the following:

            (a) the position is of a non-dealing nature;
            (b) the position does no more than protect the Capital Resources of the Authorised Firm; and
            (c) any exclusion of the position is applied consistently, with the treatment of the hedge remaining the same for the life of the asset or other item.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB A2.1.8

            In calculating its net open foreign exchange positions, an Authorised Firm may exclude any foreign exchange position related to:

            (a) items which are included as deductions from T1 Capital or deductions from T2 Capital, such as investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries; and
            (b) associated companies and joint ventures, denominated in foreign currencies, which are reported in the published accounts of an Authorised Firm at historic cost.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Repurchase and Reverse Repurchase Agreements

          • PIB A2.1.9

            An Authorised Firm must include in its Trading Book an Exposure due to a repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, Securities and commodities borrowing, or Securities and commodities lending transactions if:

            (a) the Exposure is marked to market daily (cash borrowed or lent under a repurchase agreement or a reverse repurchase agreement may be included in the Trading Book even if not marked to market provided that the residual maturity of the borrowing or lending is one month or less);
            (b) the Collateral is adjusted to take account of changes in the value of the Securities or commodities involved;
            (c) the agreement or transaction provides for the Authorised Firm's claims to be automatically and immediately offset against its Counterparty's claims if the latter defaults; and
            (d) such agreements and transactions are confined to their accepted and appropriate use and artificial transactions, especially those not of a short-term nature, are excluded.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB A2.1.9 Guidance

              Cash items include loans and deposits and the cash legs of repurchase, stock borrowing, reverse repurchase and stock lending transactions.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB A2.1.10

            Where the conditions under PIB Rule A2.1.9 are not met, an Authorised Firm must, subject to PIB Rule A2.1.3, include an Exposure arising under a repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, securities and commodities borrowing or securities and commodities lending in its Non-Trading Book.

            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB A2.1.10 Guidance

              The Non-Trading Book treatment for such Exposures is set out in Rules in PIB A4.8 and PIB A4.9.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Hedging of a Trading Book Exposure by a Non-Financial Instrument

          • PIB A2.1.11

            (1) An Authorised Firm may hedge a Trading Book Exposure, completely or partially, by a non-financial instrument that is not listed in A2.1.3. The General Market Risk Exposure associated with the non-financial instrument may be incorporated into the calculation of General Market Risk in the Trading Book if:
            (a) the specific instrument is used to hedge an Exposure in an Authorised Firm's Trading Book;
            (b) the hedge position satisfies the Netting rules contained in the relevant sections of the Market Risk chapter; and
            (c) the hedge position is marked to market or marked to model and is valued regularly on a prudent and consistent basis.
            (2) For the purposes of (1), the non-financial instrument must be treated as attracting capital charges as if it were a Financial Instrument.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB A2.1.11 Guidance

              1. If the conditions for incorporating non-financial instruments in the calculation of General Market Risk in the Trading Book under PIB Rule A2.1.11 are not met, they will be treated as Non-Trading Book items.
              2. For the purposes of PIB section A2.1, a loan will attract General Market Risk (see PIB chapter 5) and Counterparty Risk (see PIB chapter 4) on the marked-to-market valuation.
              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB A2.1.12

            (1) If an internal hedge meets the criteria specified in (2), an Authorised Firm may include it in the Trading Book without prejudice to the Capital Requirement application to the Non-Trading Book "leg" of the internal hedge.
            (2) Positions arising from internal hedges are eligible for Trading Book capital treatment, provided that they meet the criteria for trading intent specified in PIB Rule A2.1.5 and the following criteria on prudent valuation:
            (a) the internal hedge is not primarily intended to avoid or reduce Capital Requirements which the Authorised Firm would be otherwise required to maintain;
            (b) the internal hedge is properly documented and subject to specific internal approval and audit procedures;
            (c) the internal hedge is dealt with at market conditions;
            (d) the bulk of the Market Risk which is generated by the internal hedge is dynamically managed in the Trading Book within the limits approved by senior management; and
            (e) the internal hedge is carefully monitored with adequate procedures.
            (3) Where an Authorised Firm hedges a Non-Trading Book Exposure using a Credit Derivative booked in the Trading Book, the Non-Trading Book Exposure is not deemed to be hedged for the purpose of calculating its regulatory Capital Requirement, unless the Authorised Firm purchases from an eligible protection provider a Credit Derivative which complies with the requirements and meets the guidelines set out in the relevant section of PIB chapter 4. Where eligible credit protection is purchased and is recognised as a hedge of the Non-Trading Book Exposure for the purpose of calculating its regulatory Capital Requirement, the Authorised Firm may exclude both the internal and external Credit Derivative hedge from the Trading Book for the purpose of calculating its regulatory Capital Requirement for the period of the hedge.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

            • PIB A2.1.12 Guidance

              An internal hedge is a position that materially or completely offsets the component risk element of a Non-Trading Book position or a set of positions.

              Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • Transfer of General Market Risk between the Trading Book and the Non-Trading Book

          • Transfer of General Market Risk between the Trading Book and the Non-Trading Book Guidance

            1. General Market Risk arising from the Trading Book may hedge Non-Trading Book positions without reference to specific Financial Instruments.
            2. An Authorised Firm may achieve the transfer of General Market Risk between the Trading Book and Non-Trading Book by entering into a notional legal agreement between the Trading Book and Non-Trading Book as if they were third parties.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB A2.1.13

          An Authorised Firm must ensure that:

          (a) a transfer of General Market Risk between its Trading Book and Non-Trading Book is subject to appropriate documentation and evidenced by a clear audit trail;
          (b) positions held in its Non-Trading Book that are being hedged by General Market Risk arising from positions in the Trading Book remain in the Non-Trading Book; and
          (c) the General Market Risk Exposure associated with the positions in the Non-Trading Book is incorporated into the calculation of General Market Risk in the Trading Book.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB A2.1.13 Guidance

            An example of the application of PIB Rule A2.1.13(c) is as follows:

            a. An Authorised Firm may have a fixed-rate loan portfolio in the Non-Trading Book. Although the Non-Trading Book does not attract a regulatory capital charge for interest rate risk, the portfolio is subject to interest rate risk. Firms may prefer to transfer this risk to the Trading Book where it may be actively managed.
            b. The Authorised Firm may transfer this interest rate risk by entering into, for example, a fixed versus floating rate swap between the Trading Book and the Non-Trading Book. The notional long and short positions created as result of the swap are recorded in the Trading Book, and the swap positions may be treated as financial instruments provided that appropriate documentation is in place (see PIB Rule A2.1.14). The General Market Risk requirements associated with the swap legs are allocated to the appropriate Trading Book General Market Risk bucket and thus may reduce the overall General Market Risk requirement in the Trading Book.
            c. For an Authorised Firm to undertake such a transaction there should be existing positions in the Trading Book, which result in a sufficient General Market Risk requirement to offset the General Market Risk created as a result of the swap.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB A2.1.14

          Appropriate documentation under PIB A2.1.13 must cover:

          (a) details of the instruments or Exposures being transferred and the method used to transfer; and
          (b) the pricing of the transfer.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB A2.1.14 Guidance

            1. Separate documentation need not be produced for every transfer. If the same method is used for a number of transfers, a single document detailing the procedures will suffice. However, an Authorised Firm must still be able to distinguish transactions that have been undertaken for risk transfer purposes from other transactions.
            2. Arm's-length prices must be used in any transfer. 'Arm's-length' means the prevailing market price for the particular transaction.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB A2.2 Trading Book Policy

        • PIB A2.2 Guidance

          The requirement for a Trading Book policy is prescribed in PIB Rule A2.1.1.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB A2.2.1

          A Trading Book policy must include clearly defined policies, procedures and methodologies by which the Authorised Firm:

          (a) defines its Trading Book and identifies positions to be included in its Trading Book;
          (b) allocates positions between the Non-Trading Book and the Trading Book;
          (c) actively manages and values its positions in the Trading Book;
          (d) measures its Trading Book risks; and
          (e) controls transfers of positions between the Non-Trading Book and the Trading Book.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB A2.2.2

          An Authorised Firm must obtain the approval of its Governing Body for its Trading Book policy. The Authorised Firm must review and where necessary update the policy at least annually. The Authorised Firm must obtain the approval of the Governing Body for all significant changes.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB A2.2.3

          An Authorised Firm must, without undue delay, notify the DFSA when its Governing Body approves the adoption of a Trading Book policy or approves any changes to the policy.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

          • PIB A2.2.3 Guidance

            1. At a minimum, the DFSA expects that a Trading Book policy will address the following:
            a. the definition of Trading Book and trading strategy, including:
            i. the activities that the Authorised Firm considers to be trading and the types of positions that are to be allocated to the Trading Book for the purposes of calculating its regulatory Capital Requirements;
            ii. the types of positions that are excluded from the Trading Book; and
            iii. the procedures to ensure that the criteria by which positions are allocated to the Trading Book are adhered to on a consistent basis, including details on:
            A. the organisational unit or department within the Authorised Firm responsible for monitoring adherence to the Trading Book policy;
            B. the frequency of monitoring;
            C. process and methodology of this monitoring; and
            D. how the continuing appropriateness of allocations is confirmed;
            b. the extent of active management and valuation, including:
            i. the extent to which a position can be marked-to-market daily by reference to an active, liquid two-way market;
            ii. for positions which are marked-to-model, the extent to which the Authorised Firm can:
            A. identify all the material risks of the position;
            B. hedge the material risks of the position and, where the material risks of the position are hedged, the extent to which hedging instruments used have an active and liquid two-way market; and
            C. derive reliable external estimates for the key assumptions and parameters used in the model;
            iii. the extent to which the Authorised Firm can, and is required to, generate valuations for the position which can validated externally by its auditors or by the DFSA in a consistent manner;
            iv. the extent to which the Authorised Firm can, and is required to, maintain documents to support valuations of its Trading Book positions;
            v. the basis for determining and maintaining valuation adjustments for the purposes of calculating regulatory Capital Requirements;
            vi. the extent to which legal restrictions or other operational requirements would impede the ability of the Authorised Firm to effect an immediate liquidation of the position; and
            vii. the extent to which the Authorised Firm can, and is required to, actively risk manage a position within its trading operations;
            c. transfers between Non-Trading and Trading Books, including:
            i. the extent to which an Authorised Firm may transfer positions between the Non-Trading Book and the Trading Book and the criteria for such transfers;
            ii. the procedures to effect such transfers; and
            iii. the controls in place to prevent inappropriate transfers of positions between the Non-Trading Book and the Trading Book; and
            d. the following additional considerations:
            i. whether there are any subsidiaries or offshore branches of the Authorised Firm undertaking transactions to be included in the Trading Book. If so, a list of such subsidiaries or branches shall be included, along with a description of the trading activities carried out by such entities;
            ii. the treatment of inter-desk deals; and
            iii. the identification and management of structural foreign exchange positions.
            2. An Authorised Firm should prepare its Trading Book policy on a consolidated basis where the Financial Group either manages its trading risk centrally or employs the same risk management techniques across all the entities in the Financial Group. Where a Trading Book policy is prepared on a consolidated basis, an Authorised Firm should ensure that its application to the Authorised Firm and each of the other entities in the Financial Group is made clear and approved by the Governing Body of the Authorised Firm and the Governing Body of each of those entities.
            Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB A2.3 Risk Management Systems and Controls for Trading Book

        • PIB A2.3.1

          An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain effective systems and controls to manage its Trading Book.

          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

        • PIB A2.3.2

          An Authorised Firm must establish and maintain systems and controls sufficient to provide prudent and reliable valuation estimates. These systems and controls must include:

          (a) documented policies and procedures for the process of valuation (including clearly defined responsibilities of the various areas involved in the determination of the valuation, sources of market information and review of their appropriateness, frequency of independent valuation, timing of closing prices, procedures for adjusting valuations, month end and ad-hoc verification procedures); and
          (b) reporting lines for the department accountable for the valuation process that are clear and independent of the front office.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]

      • PIB A2.4 Reporting to the DFSA

        • PIB A2.4.1

          In the following Table 1:

          (a) the column headed 'Domestic Firm or Branch' indicates whether the relevant form must be prepared and submitted by a Domestic Firm or Branch;
          (b) the column headed 'Authorised Firm Category' indicates which Category of Authorised Firm must prepare and submit the relevant form;
          (c) the column headed 'Frequency' indicates whether the relevant form must be prepared and submitted on a quarterly or annual basis; and
          (d) the column headed 'Semi-annual consolidated reporting for Financial Groups' indicates which Category of Authorised Firm of a Financial Group must prepare and submit the relevant form on a semi-annual basis.
          Derived from RM111/2012 (Made 15th October 2012). [VER20/12-12]
          [Amended] DFSA RM135/2014 (Made 21st August 2014). [VER22/06-14]
          [Amended] DFSA RM188/2016 (Made 7th December 2016). [VER26/02-17]

          • PIB A2.4.1 Guidance

            Table 1

            Authorised Firm Reporting Matrix

            Form Number Form Name Domestic Firm or Branch Authorised Firm Category Frequency Semi-annual consolidated reporting for Financial Groups
            B10A Assets Domestic Firm and Branch Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4 Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B10B Liabilities (Domestic) Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4 Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B10B Liabilities (Branch) Branch Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4 Quarterly and annually Not applicable
            B10C Equity Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4 Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B10D OBS Exposures Domestic Firm and Branch Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4 Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B20A Assets – IFI Domestic Firm and Branch Category 5 Quarterly and annually Category 5
            B20B Liabilities (Domestic) – IFI Domestic Firm Category 5 Quarterly and annually Category 5
            B20B Liabilities (Branch) – IFI Branch Category 5 Quarterly and annually Not applicable
            B20C Equity - IFI Domestic Firm Category 5 Quarterly and annually Category 5
            B20D OBS Exposures – IFI Domestic Firm and Branch Category 5 Quarterly and annually Category 5
            B20E Analysis of Reserve Movement – IFI Domestic Firm Category 5 Quarterly and annually Category 5
            B30 Related Party Schedule Domestic Firm and Branch All Categories Quarterly and annually Not applicable
            B40A Profit and Loss Domestic Firm and Branch Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4 Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B40B Statement of Comprehensive Income Domestic Firm and Branch Category 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and 4 Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B50A Profit and Loss - IFI Domestic Firm and Branch Category 5 Quarterly and annually Category 5
            B50B Statement of Comprehensive Income - IFI Domestic Firm and Branch Category 5 Quarterly and annually Category 5
            B100 Declaration by Authorised Firms Domestic Firm and Branch All Categories Quarterly and annually Not applicable
            B110 Capital Ratios Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A and 5 Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2 and 5
            B120 Capital Resources Domestic Firm All Categories Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2, and 5
            B130 Credit Risk – Overview Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A and 5 Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2, and 5
            B130A Credit Risk – Balance sheet Exposures Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A and 5 Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2, and 5
            B130B Credit Risk – Counterparty Exposures Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A and 5 Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2 and 5
            B130C Credit Risk - Securitisation Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A and 5 Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2 and 5
            B140 Market Risk – Overview Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A and 5 Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2 and 5
            B140A Market Risk – Interest Rate Risk Domestic Firm Category 1, 2 and 3A Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B140B Market Risk – IRR Maturity Approach Domestic Firm Category 1, 2 and 3A Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B140C Market Risk – IRR Duration Approach Domestic Firm Category 1, 2 and 3A Quarterly and annually Category 1 and 2
            B140D Market Risk - Equity Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A and 5 Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2, and 5
            B140E Market Risk – FX Risk Domestic Firm Category 1, 2, 3A and 5 Quarterly and annually Category 1, 2 and 5